Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research

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    308 research outputs found

    Application of analytic hierarchy process to prioritize urban transport options : Comparative analysis of group aggregation methods

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    The present study presents a comparative analysis of different group aggregation methods adopted in AHP by testing them against social choice axioms with a case study of Delhi transport system. The group aggregation (GA) methods and their correctness were tested while prioritizing the alternative options to achieve energy efficient and less polluting transport system in Delhi It was observed that among all group aggregation methods, geometric mean method (GMM) - the most widely adopted GA method of AHP - showed poor performance and failed to satisfy the most popular “pareto optimality and non-dictatorship axiom” raising questions on its validity as GA method adopted in AHP. All other group aggregation methods viz. weighted arithmetic mean method with varying weights and equal weights (WAMM, WeAMM) and arithmetic mean of individual priorities (AMM) resulted in concurring results with the individual member priorities. This study demonstrates that WeAMM resulted in better aggregation of individual priorities compared to WAMM. Comparative analysis between individual and group priorities demonstrates that the arithmetic mean (AMM) of priorities by individual members of the group showed minimum deviation from the group consensus making it the most suitable and simple method to aggregate individual preferences to arrive at a group consensus

    The Use of real estate for the settlement of claims in Roman Palestine

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    The Mishna in Tractate Gittin discusses land qualities, in a context where land is used to settle monetary obligations. The law is that land of different qualities must be used to pay claimants in different situations; in particular, claimants pursuant to a tort case have the right to have their claim paid with land of the best quality. Creditors have the right to be paid with land of medium quality, while women who are owed money as part of a ketuba (marriage contract) claim may have to be satisfied with land of the lowest quality. However, the total value of the land received by each claimant is just the amount they are owed – it is independent of the quality of the land that is used to pay them. This being the case, the purpose of the legislation is unclear. In this paper, I explore the possibility that the law is designed to minimize the total amount of transactions costs

    Commercialisation of sustainable energy technologies

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    Commercialization efforts to diffuse sustainable energy technologies (SETs) need to be sustainable in terms of replication, spread and longevity, and should promote goal of sustainable development. Limited success of diffusion through government driven pathways illustrates the need for market-based approaches to SET commercialization. This paper presents a detailed treatment of the pre-requisites for adopting a private sector driven “business model” approach for successful diffusion of SETs. This is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development with innovative regulatory, marketing, financing, incentive and intermediary mechanisms. Further, it envisages a public-private partnership driven-mechanism as a framework for diffusion leading to technology commercialization

    Safe Gambles? Farmer perceptions of transactional certainty and risk-return tradeoffs in contract farming schemes in Southern India

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    This paper examines the idea that contract farming arrangements in developing countries even while offering farmers insurance against certain kinds of risks could simultaneously exacerbate other risks or entail new risks of their own. If correct, farmer perceptions of risks and returns would vary systematically across farmers with different contracting status and also across schemes. Using survey data that elicits subjective distributions of returns and psychometric mapping of risk perceptions from farmers, the study finds that contract farming, not unlike its alternatives, is associated with multiple dimensions of uncertainty and sources of risk, in ways that likely influence participation

    Growth and poverty in Maharashtra

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    Maharashtra is among the richest states in India in terms of per capita income, yet incidence of poverty in the state remains close to the national average. The state’s economy grew at a faster rate than the all-India average during 1980-1 to 1992-3, but it slowed down a bit during 1993-4 to 2003-4 due to poorer performance of agriculture and industry. Agriculture’s contribution to GSDP has come down to 12 per cent in 2002-3, but more than 50 per cent of total workers are still engaged in this. Cropping pattern has been shifting to greater value addition non-cereal crops like fruits, vegetables, oilseeds and sugarcane. Composition of manufacturing has shifted towards more capital-intensive sectors. Communication, transport and public administration have accounted for large part of service growth. The benefits of this growth process have, however, not spread equally across social groups or regions, which partly explains prevalence of high poverty compared to other states at similar mean income. The much talked about Maharashtra Employment Guarantee Scheme (MEGS) has had limited success and its coverage across districts/divisions is not proportionate to the share of poor. Despite these developments, rural poverty has reduced from 38 per cent in 1993-4 to around 24 per cent in 1999-2000. Given current investment flows, the overall growth potential of Maharashtra does look bright for the medium run. But, distributional implications of the emerging growth pattern across sectors suggest that the poor might not benefit proportionately from the growth process. The lessons that Maharashtra provides is that growth has to be more broad-based and inclusive, and that intervention through social welfare programmes like MEGS should be designed to suit the local resource base of poorer regions for faster poverty reduction.

    Evaluation of Food-for-Work (FFW) component of Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY) in selected districts of Maharashtra

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    Report Submitted to the Planning Commission, Government of India, April 2005

    Decomposition of energy consumption and energy intensity in Indian manufacturing industries

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    Of the total final energy consumption in India, the industrial sector accounts for about 37 percent, of which the manufacturing sector consumes about 66 percent (2004-2005 figures) with chemicals and petrochemicals, iron and steel, pulp and paper and cement industries being the largest energy users. In the recent past, energy intensity in the manufacturing sector has been decreasing. This decline is mainly due to fuel substitution away from coal in some of the sectors, most notably cement. While industrial production in developed countries stabilizes and declines, the industrial output in the developing world continues to expand owing to rising populations and catching up on economic growth. This can result in higher energy use — energy provided primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels — and thereby higher carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions. Using the decomposition analysis we show that most of the intensity reductions are driven purely by structural effect rather than energy intensity

    Financial constraints, inventory investment and fixed capital

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    In a series of empirical studies Fazzari and Petersen (FP) and their associates examined the substitutability between the stock of fixed capital and inventory investment of firms when they encounter short run and/or sporadic financial constraints. They consider the cashflow constraint as the major source of adjustments. In addition, they argue that the cost differential between external and internal finances makes adjustments in capital investments difficult. Hence, inventory investment is expected to bear the brunt of the adjustment. However, a myopic firm may prefer to increase sales and augment short term cashflows when confronted with a financial constraint. Inventory investment may therefore decrease along with a reduction in fixed capital investments. The firm has many more options if the financial constraints persist. A more satisfactory theoretical explanation for the relationship between the financial constraints and investments in inventories and fixed capital is therefore necessary. This study sets up a comprehensive theoretical framework and demonstrates that changes in cost of production and other logistic costs will be the primary channel through which financial constraints affect investment in inventories and fixed capital. Many other important insights into the transmission mechanism have been highlighte


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