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    Poststructuralist Feminist Approaches in Sport Management Research

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    Is the 'Appropriate Adult' appropriate?

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    It is recognised that children are particularly vulnerable within the criminal justice system and therefore should be afforded ‘appropriate assistance’ pursuant to Article 37 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). Within England and Wales, the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 states that all individuals under the age of 18 must be provided with an appropriate adult to provide advice and assistance, facilitate communication and ensure the child is being treated fairly. This chapter considers whether the appropriate adult, who can be a family member, social worker or volunteer, is appropriate to safeguard the child’s rights, entitlements and welfare whilst they are in police custody. The chapter will examine whether lawyers, as a consequence of their legal knowledge and skills, are better placed to protect the interests of a child in police custody, and if so, whether the role of the appropriate adult should be redefined to support the child’s emotional welfare and facilitate their relationship with the lawyer

    Managing designing for safety: a framework for whole-team decision making and risk control

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    Designing for Safety (DfS) aims to make designs inherently safer to build, operate and maintain, but any residual risk must be controlled, something essential to realising the benefits of inherently safer designs. Here, a conceptual decision-making framework to support DfS, developed in conjunction with industry, is introduced. It aims to assist designers in communicating risk, residual risk and actions needed to support DfS, in a way easily understood by non-specialists such as clients and business leaders. The framework proposes a qualitative categorisation for DfS linked to a clear numerical scale, which embraces the complexity of engineering assessment across the full asset lifecycle, while using a form of language (numbers) that can be readily understood by all. The framework was empirically explored through an operational design workshop with the four engineers leading design and planning teams on the framework. It was found to bring a range of benefits for DfS at the design stage: it provided structure for the discussion of DfS, made the consideration of DfS objective, gave a new vernacular which improved the collective thought process, and made the debate and the resultant design decisions more accessible to non-specialists. The framework provides a tool to support the implementation of DfS across the entire lifecycle of an asset, enhancing DfS communication within the decision making process from the initial strategic definition stage onwards

    The current state of concussion knowledge and attitudes in British American Football

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    Objectives To examine concussion knowledge and concussion attitudes of players, coaches, and support staff in British American Football (BAF). Methods Data from players, coaches and support staff (n = 236) were collected from across all leagues in BAF. An online survey tool was used which included the Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitudes Survey (RoCKAS), and questions examining concussion education and perceived risk of participating in football. Results The mean score on the RoCKAS concussion knowledge was 21.0 ± 2.1 of a possible score of 25 reflecting good knowledge. Of a possible score of 65, the mean concussion attitude score was 55.6 ± 6.1 showing safe attitude. Whilst an overall safe attitude was seen, almost half of participants (45.3%) noted they would continue to play with a concussion. No relationship was found between CAI and prior concussion history. Fifty seven percent of participants agreed the benefits of playing football outweighed the risks. Forty eight percent reported that they had received no concussion-related education in the past 12 months. Conclusion BAF participants have good concussion knowledge and safe attitudes. However, risky behavior is demonstrated through unsafe likelihood to report and attitude to long-term health risks. Access to the British American Football Association (BAFA) concussion policy and education was poor raising questions over what sources of information stakeholders are drawing their knowledge from. These findings can help form the foundation of educational interventions (e.g. coaching workshops) to challenge current misconceptions and improve likelihood to report concussion in BAF

    High-performance flexible all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors based on binder-free MXene/cellulose nanofiber anode and carbon cloth/polyaniline cathode

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    The search for wearable electronics has been attracted great efforts, and there is an ever-growing demand for all-solid-state flexible energy storage devices. However, it is a challenge to obtain both positive and negative electrodes with excellent mechanical strength and matching positive and negative charges to achieve high energy densities and operating voltages to satisfy practical application requirements. Here, flexible MXene (Ti3C2Tx)/cellulose nanofiber (CNF) composite film negative electrodes (MCNF) were fabricated with a vacuum filtration method, as well as positive electrodes (CP) by combining polyaniline (PANI) with carbon cloth (CC) using an in-situ polymerization method. Both positive and negative free-standing electrodes exhibited excellent electrochemical behavior and bendable/foldable flexibility. As a result, the all-pseudocapacitance asymmetric device of MCNF//CP assembled with charge-matched between anode and cathode achieves an extended voltage window of 1.5 V, high energy density of 30.6 WhKg-1 (1211 WKg-1), and 86 capacitance retention after 5000 cycles, and the device maintains excellent bendability, simultaneously. This work will pave the way for the development of all-pseudocapacitive asymmetric supercapacitors (ASC) with simultaneously preeminent mechanical properties, high energy density, and wide operating voltage window

    Job satisfaction and public service motivation in Australian nurses: the effects of abusive supervision and workplace bullying

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    Workplace mistreatment is common in healthcare, especially among nurses, who may experience mistreatment from different sources, yet must carry out essential, public-facing duties. However, researchers have typically studied forms of mistreatment in isolation. This paper investigates the combined relationship between abusive supervision (i.e., vertical mistreatment) and workplace bullying (i.e., horizontal mistreatment) on job satisfaction and public service motivation among nurses. Drawing from self-determination theory, we examine how experiencing workplace mistreatment can thwart the fulfilment of psychological needs, operationalised as job satisfaction. Experiencing workplace bullying alongside abusive supervision is predicted to worsen this relationship. In turn, nurses are less likely to internalise their organisation’s values, leading to less public service motivation. We tested our hypotheses on 219 Australian public sector nurses via an online survey, with a temporal separation of six weeks. Results suggest that abusive supervision has an indirect negative association with public service motivation, via job satisfaction. Workplace bullying moderated the indirect relationship at high and low levels, though the indirect relationship was stronger at low levels. Our study contributes to a well-rounded understanding of workplace mistreatment, particularly within the context of self-determination theory, and to our understanding of how public service motivation is affected by employees’ social environment

    Leaderlessness in Social Movements: Advancing Space, Symbols, and Spectacle as Modes of “Leadership”

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    The emergence of the Occupy movements along with other social movements in 2011 elevated the idea of radically decentralized “leaderless” social movement organizations. We argue that looking at such an alternative, horizontalist form of organizing presents an opportunity to reframe how we understand leadership. This paper illustrates how the coordination of the Occupy London movement was accomplished horizontally in the absence of formal organization, leadership, or authority structures. Using an ethnographic approach, we show how this movement generated a “multimodal” repertoire of protest that included (1) the politically effective occupation of urban space; (2) the ability to deploy symbols as compelling forms of aesthetic questioning; and (3) the creation of politically charged spectacles that allowed the movement to appropriate the news agendas of established broadcast media. The findings of this paper challenge the language of leadership and contribute to understandings of feminist forms of leadership and leaderless organizing by explaining one way that “leadership” occurs in horizontal organizational structures such as social movements. Namely we demonstrate how the modes of space, symbols, and spectacles effectively replace the role of “leader” in the absence of formal organizational structures

    Sexual Risk Behavior, Sexism, and Prejudices Towards Sexual Openness, Homosexuality, and Trans Individuals Among Young People in Spain and the UK

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    Introduction: Sexism, lack of sexual freedom, and negative attitudes towards minorities are related to risky and discriminatory sexual behaviors. To date, no cross-cultural comparisons have been made regarding these sexual behaviors and attitudes. The study also explores the sexuality competencies of young adults undertaking vocational courses in higher education before their transition to professional practice. Methods: The sample comprised 1235 university students (670 Spanish and 565 British) aged between 18 and 52 years (M = 22.06, SD = 4.38). During the years 2020 and 2021, respondents completed a survey structured in six standardized scales (HPSC, DSS, SOS, HATH, EANT, and TIBS). Results: Results report that British students show less gender adherence (DSS) while the Spanish ones show more positive attitudes towards trans individuals (EANT) and pleasure (SOS). These findings indicate that students in this research engage in more sexual risk behaviors (HPSC), display similar rigid gender adherences (DSS), and more positive erotophilic (SOS), homophilic (HATH), and trans-friendly attitudes (EANT and TIBS) than those in previous studies. There were, however, significant differences by gender, religion, and program of study. Conclusions: The research demonstrates the relevance of measuring cultural factors related to sexual behaviors and attitudes in youth and reflects a lack of attention to these issues in educational and healthcare settings. This is despite its broad impact on people’s health, as young people are more likely to display increased risky sexual behaviors. Policy Implications: These findings emphasize the importance of the development of updated strategies in sex education among young people. The added importance of doing so with students in higher education who are likely to enter professions where they will educate or influence others on these matters is identified

    How modern methods of construction would support to meet the sustainable construction 2025 targets, the answer is still unclear

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    The United Kingdom (UK) construction industry is world renowned for its volatile boom and bust cycle, its inefficiencies, heavy environmental impact and recurring budget and programme overruns. The Construction 2025 Strategy was published by the UK Government and industry leaders with a vision of changing the industry for the better using four key targets i.e., reduction in construction projects duration, operational cost, level of greenhouse gas emissions, and import/export trade gap. This paper investigates whether a greater uptake in modern methods of construction (MMC) could help us achieve these targets. Key insights and findings from the existing literature on MMCs cost, time, greenhouse gas emissions and trade factors were analysed with strong indications of MMCs benefit to the targets. By using snowball sampling a quantitative survey was conducted on 134 professional working in the Architectural, Engineering and Construction sectors of UK with 23 questions on the four key targets. Cronbach’s Alpha and Pearson correlation analysis techniques were employed in conjunction with factor ranking to determine the internal validity, factor links and most important factors. The results showed that the majority of respondents believed that MMC could help us achieve the construction 2025 targets, with a similarity index ranking revealing that MMC would be of the most benefit to the greenhouse gas emissions and trade targets, however, all factors ranked tightly together. This body of research will benefit the UK Government, construction associations and industrial key stakeholders in their pursuit of reaching the reduction targets, and with only three years until the deadline, there is a strong chance they will promote MMC in the industry

    Unemployed Workers’ Centres (1978–): Spatial Politics, “Non-Movement”, and the Making of Centres

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    This paper revisits the histories of Unemployed Workers’ Centres to consider the politicisation of unemployment in the UK. Drawing upon archive material and over 50 oral histories, it considers the emergence of centres as a response to a crisis of increasing unemployment and retrenchment of the welfare state. The paper indicates how Asef Bayat’s concept of “non-movement” proves useful for capturing a wider sphere of labour organising, moving beyond more conventional spaces and actions. This approach critically revisits the role of centres in conversation with emerging work in labour geography and social movements studies around the fostering of solidarities. It reveals tensions around their making, whilst also stressing the potential of seemingly small acts when held alongside campaigns. Revisiting this repertoire of activity reveals the persistence of trade union engagements with communities beyond the workplace, as well as a critical insight into the politics of space in forging such alternatives

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