Insitutional Repository at the National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies

    Existence Theorems of Continuous Social Aggregation for Infinite Discrete Alternatives

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    This paper considers the infinite alternative case to prove the existence of continuous social welfare aggregation that is anonymous and respects the unanimity. It clarifies the controversy between Chichilnisky (1982, QJE) and Huang for their contradictory results for the continuum case. Compared to their topological frameworks, the infinite alternative case is easier to understand and pinpoint their difference.We gratefully acknowledge the funding from the GRIPS Research Award and the JSPS Kakenhi Grant Number JP 17H02537.


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    政策分析プログラム / Policy Analysis Program政策研究大学院大学 / National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies論文審査委員: Wie Dainn(主査), 田中 誠, Litschig Stephan, 恒川 惠市, Myonug-Jae Lee(Korea University

    Incentivising the Social Discounting Task: A laboratory experiment

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    Altruism is one of the single most important social preferences driving human behaviour. In Psychology experiments, the Social Discounting Task is employed as a measure of altruism. A conventional laboratory experiment was conducted with 117 undergraduate students, with students randomly assigned to complete an incentivized and un-incentivized Social Discounting Task. In accordance with the 1/d law of giving, the results exhibit the expected inverse relationship between social distance and altruism. There is weak evidence that incentivizing the Social Discounting Task impacts the measurement of altruism in a student population. More specifically, subjects are more altruistic when incentivized, possibly due to enforced reciprocity. At the same time, making payments real influence the identity of the target recipients: paying makes subjects more likely to choose people who are physically and psychologically close at high ranks, and more likely to report greater physical and psychological distance to subjects at lower ranks. Further research is required to verify the robustness of this result. The study also shows that among students family members are more altruistic toward each other as are those exhibiting greater intergenerational solidarity. Preferences for altruism in this student population is no different from WEIRD subject populations.JEL Classification Codes: C91, D64

    West Germany\u27s Signature of the NPT and the Role of the United States, 1968-1969

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    1968年7月に署名が開放され、70年3月に発効した核不拡散条約(NPT)は、国際的な不拡散体制の重要な礎石であり続けてきた。NPTの締結後、その発効の鍵を握っていたのは、西ドイツであった。ソ連は西ドイツのNPT署名を自国の批准の条件としており、米国もソ連との同時批准を求めていたからである。しかし、NPTをめぐり国内が分裂していた西ドイツは、68年7月時点での署名を見送り、最終的に署名を決定したのは69年11月のことであった。本稿は、これまで十分注目されてこなかったNPT締結後の時期に、米国のジョンソン・ニクソン両政権が、西ドイツのNPT署名を得るためにいかなる外交政策を展開したのかを明らかにする。The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), which was opened for signature in July 1968 and entered into force in March 1970, has been the core component of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime. The key to the entry into force was the West Germany’s signature of the NPT. The Soviet Union had been firmly resolved that the FRG’s signature was precondition for its ratification, and the United Stated had pursued the joint Soviet-U.S. ratification. However, West Germany refused to sign the treaty in July 1968, and it took a year before its final decision to join it. This paper examines the U.S. efforts to secure the West Germany’s signature of the NPT, particularly focusing on the last year of the Johnson administration and the first year of Nixon administration.本稿は、科研費(基盤研究 B)「NATOにおける核共有・核協議制度の成立と運用」(研究課題番号 25285053)の研究成果の一部である。This paper was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25285053 (Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) : The Nuclear Sharing and Consultation Arrangement in NATO: Origins and Evolution)

    Features of ecosystems to advance disruptive inclusive innovation for the Sustainable Development Goals: Five global case studies

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    The transformation of sociotechnical systems is considered necessary to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. However, this transformation process is inhibited by institutional inertia of the public sector, vested interests of the private sector, routine habits of individuals, and increased complexity of globalized activities. While policies to stimulate the transition exist, these policies and pathways are still insufficient. Meanwhile, there are many individual private initiatives taking place to advance the societal agenda. Although these are still isolated actions of new actors, they have the potential to become broader movements. This study takes an inductive approach to examining factors that enhance the generation of new value networks with inclusive outcomes reflecting a model of “disruptive inclusive innovation.” Five cases are examined that involve venture capital, an incubator, venture companies, and a social impact fund. The study notes that a common feature underlying the ability of these organizations to generate high impact is the creation of tailored ecosystems. These activities are self-generated without much government support. Therefore, examining these as “signals” provide hints regarding how policy can be formulated to better complement and link relatively isolated cases of success so that private initiatives can be scaled-up and well-integrated with transformative policy efforts.JEL Classification Codes: O35, O38, M1

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