Nelson Mandela University

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    The use of Police force in crowd management

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    South Africa has a violent and oppressive past. They are various historical incidents1 of extreme cruelty perpetrated by the previous apartheid regime. Much of the modern South African democratic state was forged by protests. During the 1970s and 80s, the legislator by passing unjust laws was used to assist the government to maintain the oppression of the people of South Africa. From the Soweto uprising in the 1970s to the current service delivery protests of the 21st century, gatherings have always had the potential for deadly violence. The motivation for this research started with the emotions evoked by the iconic picture of the body of Hector Pietersen2 being carried after being shot by the police. Strikingly the images of the killing by the police of Andries Tatane conjured further questions concerning the use of deadly force within crowd management situations. The research undertook an analysis of the use of force by the police during crowd management situations. A brief analysis of South African law relating to the use of force by the police prior to 1996 is provided. There are legislative prescripts for the use of force during the maintenance of public order. It must be noted that the legislation falls short on providing clear, concise authority for the use of deadly force. Normally, the use of force by the police and civilians for the purpose of arrest is regulated by the Criminal Procedure Act3 , whereas the Regulation of Gatherings Act4 providing the authority for the use of force by the police in crowd management situations to preserve public order. At first glance, section 49 of the CPA seems to validate arguments that it violates some constitutionally protected rights, among which are the right to dignity, life, to freedom and security of the person, against cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment and to a fair trial, which includes the right to be presumed innocent. Section 49 however, withstood Constitutional muster as set out in Re: S v Walters & another. As the right to life is a non derogable right.5 The limitation of this right may lead to constitutional scrutiny. The emphasis will thus be on ensuring that the balance with regards to proportionality in the use of deadly force is maintained. During the research it became apparent that the police, especially during crowd management situations, served political interests.6 This had the unintended consequence that the laws were applied to suit the political narrative and not the rule of law. The use of force in the policing arena is controversial. It is very clear that any misuse of force in crowd management situations will evoke the historical wounds associated with apartheid. However, within crowd management, the use of force and the authority to use deadly force is absolutely necessary. The Marikana massacre was used to highlight the mistakes that police have made during inappropriate use of force and its catastrophic consequences.7 It was observed that the legislative framework concerning the use of force, whether under section 49 of the CPA or section 9 of the RGA, is incoherent and too complex. The research argues for simplicity and accuracy within policy and applicable legislative alignment. The linkages from the applicable legislation to the institutional policies should never be outdated or incorrectly formulated. The violent rhetoric from politicians such as ex-president Jacob Zuma, 8 Minister Fikile Mbalula 9 and Bheki Cele10 fuels the argument that the police are susceptible to misdirected notions and may cause the police act unlawfully. The Constitution requires the police to “enforce the law”11 and as such there is an obligation on the police to do this within the constitutional parameters. The correct use of deadly force will only be achieved if the SAPS adequately resource, train and regularly refresh their members regarding the use of force when policing protests.Thesis (LLM -- Faculty of Law, School of Criminal and Procedural Law, 202

    Collective entrepreneurship and economic development in MALAWI: A case study of Blantyre City

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    Entrepreneurship is one of the corner stones of poverty alleviation as it is a tool for economic growth. As Malawi’s SME sector comprising entrepreneurs is facing challenges such as lack of access to finance, and high business operating costs, collective entrepreneurship has been found to be a possible solution. Collective entrepreneurship occurs when individual’s resources and skills are incorporated into a group so that the innovation process and accessing marketing resources is made easier compared to individual effort. The collective ability of individuals and organisations is important in developing countries as it enables the use of the community as a means of targeting business opportunities and hence promoting growth of the economy. This study’s purpose was to assess the potential of collective entrepreneurship in enhancing economic development in Malawi. Specifically, the study aimed to investigate the youths’ attitudes towards collective entrepreneurship, examine the potential of collective entrepreneurship to empower the youth economically, explore ways of engaging the youth in collective entrepreneurship programmes and identify strategies that could be used to promote economic development by the youth through collective entrepreneurship. The study focused on the youth to increase their empowerment economically, as this element was previously not critically examined. Furthermore, this study was based on the fact that not much research has been conducted in Malawi to guide an entrepreneurship development strategy. The study’s participants were from Blantyre City townships. A survey method was adopted, targeting a population of 90 respondents. Data was collected using 40 questionnaires, 17 in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions. Data was analysed using software packages such as Rev, Microsoft Excel and SPSS. The results of the study revealed that the majority of the youth are ready to participate in collective entrepreneurship ventures as they can potentially empower them economically. The study found ways of engaging the youth in collective entrepreneurship programmes, which included financial institutions such as banks providing timely tailored financing options and engaging responsively with youth. The study identified strategies that could be used to promote economic development by means of collective entrepreneurship including universities supporting young entrepreneurs through courses on collective vii entrepreneurship, and the hosting of incubator and accelerator programmes. The study made several recommendations which among them was targeting the youth in the formation of collective entrepreneurship programmes, developing policies that embrace key success factors for collective entrepreneurship and promoting entities that can foster collective entrepreneurship.Thesis (MA) -- Faculty of Faculty of Business and Economic Sciences, 202

    South African plantation forest nursery pesticide -use: current status, pesticide identification for management, and screening of fungicides for pathogen control

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    Forest nurseries are exposed to many challenges during the production of plant material, with pests and pathogens two of the most important. Management of pests and diseases require the use of multiple methods, including cultural, biological, and chemical control strategies in an integrated nursery pest management plan (IPM). In most nurseries, where hygiene practices and biological controls do not prevent the presence of pests and pathogens, they are managed through the use of pesticides. Forestry companies are regulated by both Government and Forestry Certification bodies. These include South African legislation pertaining to pesticides regulated by the Registrar Act 36 of 1947, the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC). A limited number of pesticides, with an even more limited range of active ingredients, and not targeting all known plantation forestry pests/pathogens, are currently registered for use against pests and pathogens in plantation forestry in South Africa. Many of these have been in use for more than a decade, posing a serious risk in terms of resistance build-up. There is a major need for the identification and testing of additional/alternative products (biological natural or synthetic) for use against the range of pests and pathogens that occur on the various plantation tree species and hybrid combinations that are raised in nurseries.Thesis (MSc) -- Faculty of Science, School of Natural Resource Science & Management, 202

    A reconceptualised perspective of the six-step financial planning process

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    The globally applied six-step financial planning process which is used by CFP® professionals to provide financial advice is designed to ensure that the financial advice is suitable, based on the needs of the consumer. However, given the diverse cultures in South Africa, this study argues that the six-step financial planning process (as it is currently applied) may not be suitable, as it requires contextualisation based on the unique needs of South African consumers. The various population groups in South Africa have their own sets of beliefs, values and cultural practices, and thus view aspects such as wealth (the creation, preservation and transference thereof), marriage, death and retirement, differently. Thus, financial planners who are not knowledgeable about different cultures, diverse financial needs, or the provisions of customary law, may not be able to provide suitable advice. The primary objective of the study is thus to reconceptualise the six-step financial planning process to be more inclusive, in order to better serve the financial planning needs of South African consumers. A comprehensive literature review was undertaken to provide the context and framework within which the reconceptualisation of the six-step financial planning process could be approached. An investigation of the financial planning environment and the financial planning process was completed to determine how the six-step financial planning process is currently applied in the South African context. Further, an investigation of culture and the cultural dimensions – power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, masculinity, timeorientation and indulgence – was conducted, as it was clear that these cultural dimensions cannot be generalised to all South African consumers, due to the large degree of diversity within the population. It was also determined that there are various factors that contribute towards the cultural diversity of South African consumers, which may influence their financial needs and the type of financial advice that is required. These factors include race and ethnicity, marital regimes, procreation and family structures. To further illustrate the diversity of financial needs of South African consumers, a discussion of Black households and the application of financial planning legislation and customary law was provided. Black households are considered to be under-serviced, historically financially excluded, have low levels of financial literacy, and are mostly collectivist in nature. It is for these reasons that Black households are the focus of the study. Some of the financial needs that vi are common among Black households include land and property ownership, family wealth, family homesteads, lobola capital and ‘black tax’ expenditure. Given that the literature review established how the six-step financial planning process is currently applied, an interpretivist research philosophy was adopted in order to gain a deeper understanding of how the six-step financial planning process should be applied in a South African context. Further, the research approach in the context of this study is an inductive one, as the six-step financial planning process is an existing theory that was reconceptualised by considering the perceptions and experiences of 16 CFP® professionals and 14 Black South African households. A mono-method qualitative research methodology was used, with a single qualitative method of data collection (semi-structured interviews), and a single qualitative method of data analysis (latent content analysis). The findings of the study were used to provide a reconceptualised perspective of the six-step financial planning process which takes into consideration the fact that the image of a financial planner plays an important role when trying to establish a professional relationship with a client. The findings reveal that Black consumers in particular, generally have a negative image of a financial planner, which is influenced not only by their perceptions of a financial planner, but also by their self-perception of their own financial situation. The reconceptualised perspective of the six-step financial planning process also incorporates the finding that discussions around personal finances are considered impolite and taboo among the Black African community, which influences their ability to talk about these topics, trust a financial planner, and establish a professional relationship with them. The findings also reveal that a racial and gender bias exists among Black consumers – they prefer interacting with a White male financial planner, as they perceive them to be more competent and have more experience with finances and wealth accumulation. It was also found that CFP® professionals believe that having cultural awareness and cultural intelligence can reduce bias in the way that questions are asked, so as not to offend the client. Thus, cultural awareness was also incorporated into the reconceptualised perspective of the six-step financial planning process. It was also noted that it is important to ascertain clients’ level of financial literacy during the information gathering stage. Black consumers opined that in this regard, it is the role of the financial planner to both ascertain and ensure their clients’ financial literacy, and to offer financial education to ensure client understanding. vii Although the premise of the study is that South African consumers have unique financial needs due to the high degree of diversity among the population, it was the opinion of CFP® professionals that Black consumers, in particular, do not have unique financial needs – instead, they define their needs differently, have different exposures to financial resources to address their financial needs, and also prioritise and satisfy their needs differently. The prioritised financial needs of Black households (sub-themes) that emerged from both participant groups include the need to make provision for black tax, estate planning, funerals, and property ownership. Black household participants mentioned (to a greater extent than CFP® professionals did) the need to make provision for lobola and initiation schools, as these form part of several traditional ceremonies. The need to make provision for a family home was mentioned by Black household participants but not by CFP® professionals. It was discovered from Black household participants that stokvels are the most common micro-finance tool used by Black consumers, for various reasons. In fact for some, stokvels are preferred over formal financial products because they perceive that they yield a higher return, and others use them successfully to supplement their current provisions. These findings (among others) were incorporated into the reconceptualised perspective of the six-step financial planning process which is presented in this study. This study has made a contribution to the financial planning body of knowledge by presenting a reconceptualised perspective of the six-step financial planning process, and providing new knowledge on each of the associated six steps and their suitability in a South African context. This study also provides justification and evidence for the inclusion of aspects within the sixstep financial planning process that enhance the understanding of cultural diversity and needs of Black households in particular. Justification has also been provided for the inclusion of cultural aspects and diverse needs of Black consumers the in the academic curriculum of FPI and FSCA recognised qualifications, as well as the facilitation and learning outcomes of business and product-specific training that FSPs are required to provide to their representatives. The study findings also have implications for the development of the academic curriculum and assessment materials for CFP® professionals by recognised education providers, the FSCA regulatory examination, and the FPI professional competency examination. In addition, the study has provided evidence for the need to develop financial products, or customise existing financial products, that address the viii needs of Black households – especially culture-specific financial needs such as black tax, lobola and funding for initiation schools. Key words: Black households; CFP® professionals; culture; diverse needs; reconceptualisation; six-step financial planning process.Thesis (MSc) -- Faculty of Science, School of Environmental Sciences, 202

    The effect of illicit financial flows on Zimbabwe's economic growth and development

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    This study examines the effect of Illicit Financial Flows (IFFs) and capital flight on Zimbabwe’s economic growth and development. The study data covered the period 1980-2020 applying the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) regression model to assess the relationship between IFFs and capital flight and Zimbabwe’s economic growth and development. Most empirical studies on developing countries show that in both the short and long run, IFFs and capital flight not only reduce the revenue base of the economy but its multiplier effects result in a negative significant relationship between economic growth and development. This supports the continued call for policymakers and government to develop effective policies and continue to have intergovernmental and bilateral engagements to share knowledge and information to deter and control these activities. Unless these activities are controlled, most developing countries will have revenue shortfalls that will have to be funded from Other Donor Assistance (ODA), AID and loans. The study used two ARDL models to assess the impact of GDP and Manufacturing output to assess the impact. GDP and Manufacturing output have been chosen as the proxies of economic growth. Data showed that capital flight had a positive coefficient relationship with GDP in the long run. It was statistically significant and capital flight also had a negative and insignificant effect on manufacturing output during the period 1980-2020. Thus, Zimbabwe should effectively engage in policies and measures that identify and deter IFFs and capital flight activities because the multiplier effects of the activities have a negative impact on economic growth and development. The continued depletion of state resources discredits the objectives of the government to achieve the 2030 Millennium Development Goals. Government expenditure in nonproductive sectors must be avoided, instead, priority must be given to sectors that attract investors and stimulate economic growth and development.Thesis (MA) -- Faculty of business and economic sciences, 202

    The assessment of public participation as a model to enhance development in local government: the case of Raymond Mhlaba local municipality in the Eastern Cape

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    The notion of public participation in decision-making processes is one of the mechanisms that seek to entrench equality and transform social coherence between government and citizens. This view relates to the provision of quality and sustainability of goods and services. The individuals, both in their capacity as citizens and consumers of public goods and services should be allowed to participate in the development that affect in terms of the regulatory frameworks. They should be permitted and encouraged to express their views on governance and development matters pertaining to them. Nevertheless, there are number of factors that impede the participation of the local communities in development planning processes, such as a communication gap between government officials and communities, socio-economic inequalities, poor service delivery, unemployment, a lack of capacity building and transparency to mention a few. The planning and implementation of municipal projects should be accepted only after considerable discussion and consultation with communities. This process is seen as allowing deprived groups and individuals to have voices in future development initiatives. As such, public participation enables for full involvement of ordinary members of the community in decision making, planning, designing, organising and executing development initiatives that affect them. The Researcher decided to embark on a study entitled: The assessment of public participation as a model to enhance development in local government. The case of Raymond Mhlaba Local Municipality in the Eastern Cape. Adopting the quantitative research design, data was collected through questionnaires for the key informants consisting of 3 participants, 3 officials from Raymond Mhlaba Municipality. Data was also collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews with members of the communities from Kataga in Adelaide, Gaga Village in Alice and Magaleni location in Fort Beaufort. Eighteen (18) community members were selected to participate in the study from both communities inclusive of ward councillors. Community members were organised into 1 focus group participants in each location (comprising of 6 people per group).To support the data obtained from focus group 3 key informants from Raymond Mhlaba Municipality participated in the investigation. A heterogeneous population of 21 respondents participated in this study. The thematic analysis was vii used to analyse data. The findings consistently show that the ability of a local government to work effectively dependent on inclusive planning, implementation and decision making processes. This means that local government development is also required for the impartial and efficient operation of public institutions. Public confidence in local municipalities is expressed as one of the main factors that determine the government‘s competitiveness.Thesis (MA) -- Faculty of Faculty of Business and Economic Sciences, 202

    The effect of Cannabis extract on the morphological and metabolic characteristics of various fat depots in diet-induced Obese and STZ-induced male wistar rats

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    To investigate the potential anti-diabetic/obesity properties of oral cannabis administration in an obese and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat model, as well as an obese rat model, and to determine the mechanism of action, with a focus on the peritoneal and intramuscular fat depots. Experimental Design: Obese and STZ-induced diabetic rats were allocated a high fat diet (HFD) and intraperitoneally injected with STZ to mimic an obese and diabetic state. The rats were then orally administered cannabis extract (CE) of 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg body weight (relative to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content) or metformin as a positive control. For the obese rat model, the rats were allocated either a high carbohydrate diet (HCD) or high fat diet (HFD) and orally administered with cannabis extract of 1.25 mg/kg body weight (relative to THC content). Weight, blood and insulin-resistant parameters of the rats were monitored. The mitochondrial to genomic DNA ratio (MT:18S DNA), average adipocyte area of the various adipose tissues, citrate synthase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) enzyme activities of the peritoneal and intramuscular fat were measured. Gene expression levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), cell-death inducing DNA fragmentation factor alpha like effector-a (Cidea), perilipin, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) were measured in peritoneal fat, intramuscular fat and brown adipose tissue (BAT). Main Findings: Obese and STZ-induced diabetic rat model: Due to the biphasic nature of cannabinoids, cannabis dosage plays an important role in the observed effects. CE1.25 was the only cannabis treatment effective in improving the insulinresistant parameters of the rats unlike the other higher cannabis concentrations (CE2.5 and CE5.0). In the peritoneal fat, CE1.25 increased MT:18S DNA, increased citrate synthase activity, and decreased the average adipocyte area when compared to the STZ group. CE1.25 also induced fat beigeing by upregulating gene expression levels of UCP1 and Cidea. XIX Furthermore, an increase in gene expression levels of perilipin, HSL, and TFAM showed increased fat mobilization and metabolic activity. In the intramuscular fat, CE1.25 also reduced the average adipocytes area. However, a different mechanism of action was observed where CE1.25 did not induce fat beigeing, but instead increased both citrate synthase and CPT1 enzyme activities and gene expression levels of HSL, thereby indicating increased fat oxidation and mitochondrial activity.Thesis (PhD) -- Faculty of Science, School of Biomolecular and Chemical Sciences, 202

    Continuous flow synthesis of a key intermediate towards the antidiabetic drug repaglinide

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    Across the world, diabetes is one of the leading causes of deaths attributed to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). In Africa, a huge proportion of African countries’ annual healthcare budgets are consumed by diabetes (7 %) with many already experiencing healthcare budget deficits. The prevalence of diabetes is rapidly growing and threatens the economic productivity and livelihood of many families within the region. The world leaders have invested heavily in reducing the pandemic by focusing on increasing the availability of affordable essential medicines in developing countries. The majority of diabetes cases are due to type 2 diabetes (90 %) and may be treated using oral hypoglycaemic drugs (OHDs). Repaglinide (REP) is a non-sulfonylurea insulin secretagogue (meglitinide) with greater HbA1c reduction than metformin in newly onset type 2 diabetic patients, however due to the high price of REP outside Asia, cheaper and less effective OHDs are prescribed to patients. Many of the reported synthetic routes towards REP utilize a key intermediate, 2-(3-ethoxy-4- iethoxycarbonyl)phenyl)acetic acid. The key intermediate contributes significantly to the price of REP as many of the intermediate’s synthetic routes suffer from long reaction times, low yields and industrial complex approaches. Therefore, this has prompted us to investigate an efficient process towards the synthesis of 2-(3-ethoxy-4-(ethoxycarbonyl)phenyl)acetic acid using multiple continuous flow systems.Thesis (MSc) -- Faculty of Science, School of Biomolecular and Chemical Sciences, 202

    Transfer of technological innovation for socio-economic development: the case of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in ACCRA, Ghana

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    The importance of technological innovation transfer to a country’s socio-economic development cannot be underestimated. This is because technological innovation provides the base for today’s knowledge-based economy. As a developing economy, Ghana faces several socio-economic development challenges as those of other developing economies. Despite these socio-economic challenges, it has been shown that thriving Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) in Ghana, could help improve the socio-economic development of the Ghanaian economy. Notwithstanding the valuable contributions of SMEs to socio-economic development in Ghana, there appears to be a more significant disconnect between research outcomes from research institutions to SMEs in the areas of technological innovation transfer. It appears there is no bridge between research institutions and SMEs. Against this backdrop, the study aimed at investigating how the transfer of technological innovation from research institutions to SMEs could enable SMEs to thrive and improve the socio-economic development of the Ghanaian economy. A mixed methods research approach was used for the study. The study applied a stratified sampling technique to select 432 CEOs of SMEs from a total population of 481CEOs which represents all CEOs of SMEs in the Association of Ghana Industries (AGI) database in Accra, Ghana as of December 2018. A purposive sampling technique was also used to select ten (10) directors of research institutions from a total number of nineteen (19) research institutions, (including the CSIRs and public tertiary educational institutions), based in Accra, Ghana. The study site, Accra, Ghana, was chosen because of its thriving SME populations and world-class research institutions. While a probit regression model was used to address only the objective three (3) of the research objectives, a descriptive statistical analysis was used via the usage of the SPSS software to generate the mean, standard deviation and percentages on the trend and distribution of the study variables among the study population. However, thematic analysis which enables the examination of the data to identify common themes was used on the qualitative data. The empirical results from the study indicated that technological innovation received from research institutions did not address SMEs' needs and did not result in products and services needed by the Ghanaian community. The study found low collaboration between research institutions and SMEs; and indicated that policy direction towards research institutions and SMEs' collaboration was the essential factor in boosting the efforts to drive collaborations. The study has made a valuable contribution to knowledge by showcasing a framework for successfully transferring technological innovation from research institutions to iii SMEs. The study also contributes to the Helix and triple helix models of innovation by indicating that the successful transfer of technological innovation goes beyond the production of basic research by research institutions and the adoption of basic research by SMEs. Thus, successful technological innovation transfer hinges mainly on effective collaboration between the parties involved. In this regard, the study also contributes to theory, as it is one of the first studies to directly address the problem concerning how the transfer of technological innovation from research institutions to SMEs could enable SMEs thrive and improve the socio-economic development of the Ghanaian economy. The study could enable policymakers/governments to understand the existing gap between research institutions and SMEs and how they can work together to harness technological innovation for the betterment of socio-economic development in Ghana. It also generates new empirical knowledge on research and SMEs. The new knowledge in technological innovations could shape theory and policy decision-making, resulting in enhanced sustainable socio-economic development in Ghana.Thesis (PhD) -- Faculty of Business and Economic Sciences, 202

    Effect of livestock management and services to ecosystems on rangeland health and resilience in the NamaKaroo

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    Rangelands offer great opportunities for mutualisms between nature conservation and economic productivity if positive feedback loops can be identified and described. The effects of different livestock management practices are controversial. This research examined the effect of different grazing intensities on soil health using springtails (Collembola) and ants (Formicidae) as bioindicators, combined with soil and vegetation variables. The relationship between rangeland managers and rangeland ecosystems, particularly with regard to feedback loops between land care and economic production, was also investigated. Bioindicator samples were collected at different treatments of livestock grazing intensity and a questionnaire was submitted to 65 rangeland managers in the semi-arid Nama-Karoo biome of South Africa. In most cases we found no significant relationship between grazing intensity and Collembola and ant community composition, vegetation variables, and soil variables. The few significant relationships we found were contradictory in their implications for the effect of high intensity grazing on soil health. The results suggested that differences in livestock management are relatively unimportant for soil health, at least in semi-arid systems under conditions immediately following a drought. The questionnaire yielded results on outline of management practices, basis of management decisions, consequences of monitoring veld to inform management decisions, and indicators of successful management. Respondents characterized by higher ecological fluency focused on livestock production when making management decisions, stocked at higher densities, and monitored the rangeland ecosystem to inform their decisions. For monitoring the ecosystem, they used bioindicators such as diversity of biota, successional stage, and ecologically important functional groups. We concluded that the development of ecological knowledge in rangeland managers enables the establishment of feedback loops between ecosystem services and services to ecosystems, which are desirable for economic productivity and nature conservation. Development of relevant ecological knowledge and management techniques should be based on forums and dialogue among rangeland managers, developing distributed cognition and resilience in the community of rangeland managers.Thesis (MSc) -- Faculty of Science, School Natural Resource Science and Management, 202

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