Gunma University Academic Information Repository

    The long-term patient reported-outcomes of elbow, wrist, and hand surg ery for rheumatoid arthritis

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    Insulin Regulates Lipolysis and Fat Mass by Upregulating Growth/Differentiation Factor 3 in Adipose Tissue Macrophages

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    システム生物学のための統合解析シミュレータ WinBEST-KIT の開発

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    Previously, I developed the biochemical reaction simulator called WinBEST-KIT (Biochemical Engineering System analyzing Tool-KIT, which runs under Microsoft Windows) for analyzing complicated biochemical reaction systems such as metabolic pathways. WinBEST-KIT provides an integrated simulation environment for experimental researchers in the field of systems biology. One of the most notable features of WinBEST-KIT is that users can very easily customize user-defined reaction step symbols in the graphical user interface. It realizes that users can use their original mathematical kinetic equations for representing unknown kinetic mechanisms as reaction steps in addition to the prepared standard (pre-installed) mathematical kinetic equations such as Michaelis-Menten equation. The problem we must be considered is, however, that the mathematical modeling for the dynamics of the large-scale biochemical reaction systems needs stochastic fluctuation for the several reaction steps. In this study, I developed a new version of WinBEST-KIT that enables users to include the stochastic fluctuation into the customized user-defined reaction step symbols. Therefore, it is possible to include simultaneously both the reaction step symbols in which involve with the stochastic fluctuation and the reaction step symbols in which involve the conventional deterministic reactions, at constructing the model of the biochemical reaction systems to be analyzed with WinBEST-KIT

    英語教育における流暢さと即興力の育成 ── 中学生の話すことにおける意識の一考察 ──

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    The major goals of this study are to examine junior high school students’ awareness of fluency and impromptu skill in terms of speaking in English as a Foreign Language (hereafter, EFL) and to consider what to do, by way of future research and creation of daily lessons, in order to raise awareness and to develop their practical speaking abilities. Recent Japanese EFL education (see MEXT 2017a-e) emphasizes that developing learners’ fluency and impromptu skill is particularly important. This is because traditional Japanese EFL education has focused on acquisition of grammar, drawing learners’ attention to individual forms rather than to meaning. Problematic outcomes of such an approach are tendencies for learners to comprehend texts/utterances in a heavy bottom-up manner and to refrain from speaking/writing without confirming that what they are about to say/write is grammatically correct. In this study, 419 junior high school students in 1st to 3rd grades responded to a short paper-and-pencil questionnaire that examined their awareness of fluency and impromptu skill in EFL speaking. Results of analyses showed a significant difference in awareness of impromptu skill between 1st and 2nd grades and between 1st and 3rd grades, whereas no significant differences were found in awareness of fluency between these three grades. Moreover, results of analyses showed no correlation between 1st graders’ mid-term/ final exam scores and their awareness of fluency/impromptu skill, but showed a correlation between 2nd graders’ final exam scores and their awareness of fluency and between 2nd graders’ final exam scores and their awareness of impromptu skill. Based on this and other information obtained in the study, we consider issues for future research and creation of classroom activities that develop fluency and impromptu skill in Japanese EFL education

    A Preliminary Study on Why Second Language Learners Accept Ungrammatical Sentences: Its Theoretical Implications

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    Why do second language learners sometimes accept ungrammatical sentences in the target language? In the present study, we focus on Japanese-speaking learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and investigate whether such “grammatical illusion” effect would be observed in them and whether the effect could be dependent on their proficiency. The results of one acceptability judgment questionnaire experiment and of one preliminary self-paced reading experiment are reported. The results of the questionnaire experiment showed that the lower-proficiency Japanese EFL learners were more likely to accept ungrammatical sentences in English compared to the higher-proficiency learners. The results of the self-paced reading experiment indicated that the reading time difference between ungrammatical sentences and their grammatical counterparts was significant for one native English speaker but not for two Japanese EFL learners. It is suggested that the “grammatical illusion” effect (i.e., erroneous acceptance of ungrammatical sentences) in second language learners is more likely to be observed when their proficiency is lower, and possibly that second language learners can accept ungrammatical sentences during their real-time processing. We discuss a new approach to second language acquisition from the perspective of the grammatical illusion phenomenon
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