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    Spatiotemporal dynamics of the kinetic energy in the atmospheric boundary layer from minisodar measurements

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    Spatiotemporal dynamics of the atmospheric kinetic energy and its components caused by the ordered and turbulent motions of air masses are estimated from minisodar measurements of three velocity vector components and their variances within the lowest 5–200 m layer of the atmosphere, with a particular emphasis on the turbulent kinetic energy. The layered structure of the total atmospheric kinetic energy has been established. From the diurnal hourly dynamics of the altitude profiles of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) retrieved from minisodar data, four layers are established by the character of the altitude TKE dependence, namely, the near-ground layer, the surface layer, the layer with a linear TKE increase, and the transitive layer above. In the first layer, the most significant changes of the TKE were observed in the evening hours. In the second layer, no significant changes in the TKE values were observed. A linear increase in the TKE values with altitude was observed in the third layer. In the fourth layer, the TKE slightly increased with altitude and exhibited variations during the entire observation period. The altitudes of the upper boundaries of these layers depended on the time of day. The MKE values were much less than the corresponding TKE values, they did not exceed 50 m2/s2. From two to four MKE layers were distinguished based on the character of its altitude dependence. The two-layer structures were observed in the evening and at night (under conditions of the stable atmospheric boundary layer). In the morning and daytime, the four-layer MKE structures with intermediate layers of linear increase and subsequent decrease in the MKE values were observed. Our estimates demonstrated that the TKE contribution to the total atmospheric kinetic energy considerably (by a factor of 2.5–3) exceeded the corresponding MKE contribution

    Adhesion and friction in hard and soft contacts: theory and experiment

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    This paper is devoted to an analytical, numerical, and experimental analysis of adhesive contacts subjected to tangential motion. In particular, it addresses the phenomenon of instable, jerky movement of the boundary of the adhesive contact zone and its dependence on the surface roughness. We argue that the "adhesion instabilities" with instable movements of the contact boundary cause energy dissipation similarly to the elastic instabilities mechanism. This leads to different effective works of adhesion when the contact area expands and contracts. This effect is interpreted in terms of “friction” to the movement of the contact boundary. We consider two main contributions to friction: (a) boundary line contribution and (b) area contribution. In normal and rolling contacts, the only contribution is due to the boundary friction, while in sliding both contributions may be present. The boundary contribution prevails in very small, smooth, and hard contacts (as e.g., diamond-like-carbon (DLC) coatings), while the area contribution is prevailing in large soft contacts. Simulations suggest that the friction due to adhesion instabilities is governed by "Johnson parameter". Experiments suggest that for soft bodies like rubber, the stresses in the contact area can be characterized by a constant critical value. Experiments were carried out using a setup allowing for observing the contact area with a camera placed under a soft transparent rubber layer. Soft contacts show a great variety of instabilities when sliding with low velocity – depending on the indentation depth and the shape of the contacting bodies. These instabilities can be classified as "microscopic" caused by the roughness or chemical inhomogeneity of the surfaces and "macroscopic" which appear also in smooth contacts. The latter may be related to interface waves which are observed in large contacts or at small indentation depths. Numerical simulations were performed using the Boundary Element Method (BEM)

    Application of the Schottky diode as a detector of continuous terahertz radiation

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    The results of research of the electrophysical and frequency characteristics of the semiconductor structure of a Schottky diode based on gallium arsenide are presented. The diode structure was modelled in the Sentaurus TCAD software package. A comparison of the current-voltage characteristics obtained by mathematical modeling and by experiment are presented. The frequency response in the range of 115-257 GHz is shown. The use of a Schottky diode as a continuous terahertz radiation detector is shown

    Biopsychosocial approach in medical rehabilitation of patients after coronavirus infection

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    This article presents the experience of defning an integrative medical and psychological model for assessing health and developing a model for subsequent rehabilitation measures based on a biopsychosocial approach. The results of the study after the rehabilitation measures: psychological correction, psychoprophylaxis of acute stress and post-traumatic stress reactions, anxiety disorders, maladaptive mental states of patients who have undergone COVID-19, improving their quality of life and adaptive capabilities in a situation of uncertaint

    The cyclic stability of superelasticity in aged Ti49.3Ni50.7 single crystals with oxide surface

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    The cyclic stability of superelasticity in compression in [001]B2-oriented Ti49.3Ni50.7 single crystals is considered in this paper. The crystals were aged at 823 K for 1.0 h in air and helium. It has been experimentally shown that a two-layered surface thin film, consisting of a Ni-free oxide layer and a Ni-rich sublayer, appears after the oxidation at 823 K in air. The surface layers have a weak effect on the forward B2-R-B19’ martensitic transformation temperatures: TR temperature increases by 4 K;Ms and Mf temperatures decrease by 6 K. The oxide layer does not affect either the superelasticity response during fatigue tests or the temperatures of reverse B19’-B2 martensitic transformation. The cracking of the surface oxide layer during fatigue tests was not found in [001]B2-oriented single crystals aged in air. This is contributed by the relaxation of internal stresses. Such internal stresses are caused by both the formation of an oxide layer during aging and the matrix deformation at the stress-induced martensitic transformation. The main relaxation mechanisms of the internal stresses are the oriented growth of Ti3Ni4 precipitation near a thin surface film at aging in air, the formation of dislocations near the precipitation-matrix interface and a fine twinned B19’-martensite at fatigue tests

    Prediction with guaranteed accuracy for Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process

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