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    Community of inquiry framework: New research on the future of online learning

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    Dr. Peter Shea, Assistant Professor of Educational Theory and Practice at SUNY-Albany, presented a workshop covering the following topics: * How do people learn? * What conditions lead to learning? * How do people learn online? * What conditions lead to online learning? * A model for quality online learning environments * Research on components of the model * Context -Why we need to be interested in these topics…Community of Inquiry Framework: New Research on the Future of Online Learning Peter Shea Educational Theory and Practice & College of Computing and Information University at Albany State University of New YorkTopics How do people learn? What conditions lead to learning? How do people learn online? What conditions lead to online learning? A model for quality online learning environments Research on components of the model Context -Why we need to be interested in these topics… OverviewQuick Quiz: The processing power available in the original 30 ton, 18,000 tube ENIAC computer is now available in which common device?Is it a Laptop?Cellphone? Really small cellphone? Correct answer: It’s a musical greeting card… Some advances have been made in technology…and in Online Learning...UMUC In FY 2009, UMUC had over 196,000 online course enrollments. UMUC offers more than 100 bachelor and master degree programs and certificates fully online. In FY 2009 UMUC offered close to 760 distinct courses online. Summary Approximately 4.5 million students studying in online environments in higher education (Allen & Seaman, 2009). The Department of Education estimates these students generated 12 million online college course enrollments in 2007 (Parsad & Lewis, 2008). More than 1 in 4 US college students take at least one online course each year. Growth in online instruction is 6 times rate of growth in classroom instruction.OK – sure its growing, but is it any good? Is anyone learning anything?Learning Outcomes are Better: Three Recent Reviews Bernard, M., Abrami, P., Lou, Y. Borokhovski, E., Wade, A., Wozney, L., Wallet, P., Fiset, M. Euang, B. (2004). How does distance education compare with classroom instruction? A meta-analysis of the empirical literature. Review of Educational Research Vol. 74, No. 3, pp. 379-439. Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R., Bakia, M. & Jones, K. (2009). Evaluation of evidence-based practices in online learning: A meta-analysis and review of online learning studies. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development. Zhao, Y., Lei, J., Yan, B., Lai, C., Tan, H.S., (2005). What Makes the Difference? A Practical Analysis of Research on the Effectiveness of Distance Education. Teachers College Record Volume 107, Number 8, pp. 1836–1884. * Learning outcomes are better – especially under certain conditions…get back to this later.Quality of Outcomes: Results of Meta Meta- Analyses of OL vs. CI Small but significant differences in favor of OLL…Lets unpack some of this... What does it mean to learn anyway?A task for you Now – with a partner, answer the following questions - How do people learn best? What conditions are necessary for learning to occur? Especially in higher education…Community Assessment Centered A Developing Conceptual Framework for Online Learning Knowledge Centered Learner Centered Bransford, et al (2002) “How People Learn”Knowledge Centered –Outcomes oriented - knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for successful transfer. Learner Centered - connect to the strengths, interests, and preconceptions of learners and help them learn about themselves as learners. Community Centered –environment where students feel safe to ask questions, learn to work collaboratively, and are helped to develop lifelong learning skills. Assessment Centered - provide multiple opportunities to make students’ thinking visible so they can receive feedback and be given a chance to revise. “How People Learn” Framework (Bransford et al, 2002) People learn best in environments that are:Another task for you How do people learn best online? What conditions are necessary for learning to occur online. (especially in higher education)The question we want to address: What makes a good, higher education, online-learning environment?What makes a good, higher education, online-learning environment? To answer this you need to know: 1) What makes a good learning environment “offline”? 2) What are important, specific, best practices for adult learners in higher education? 3) What are important specific, best practices for adult online learners in higher education?What makes a good, higher education, online-learning environment? To answer this you need to know: 1) What makes a good learning environment generally? Again the Brandsford et. al model is a good start...Community Assessment Centered A Developing Conceptual Framework for Online Learning Knowledge Centered Learner Centered Bransford, et al (2002) “How People Learn”What makes a good, higher education, online-learning environment? To answer this you need to know: 2) What are important, specific, best practices for adult learners in higher education?Contact Between Students and Faculty Reciprocity and Cooperation Among Students Active Learning Techniques Communication of High Expectations Respect for Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning Prompt Feedback Time on Task The 7 principles of good practice in undergraduate education encourage: "Certain institutional practices are known to lead to high levels of student engagement. Perhaps the best known set of engagement indicators is the "Seven Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate Education." (Kuh, 2007 – National Survey of Student Engagement) Chickering and Gamson, (1987)Community Assessment Centered Active Learning Techniques Prompt Feedback Contact Between Students and Faculty Student Reciprocity and Cooperation Time on Task The 7 principles of good practice encourage: Communication of High Expectations Respect for Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning A Developing Conceptual Framework for Online Learning Chickering and Gamson, (1987) Bransford, et al (2002) “How People Learn” Learner Centered Knowledge CenteredWhat makes a good, higher education, online-learning environment? To answer this you need to know: 3) What are important specific, best practices for adult online learners in higher education?Online Learning Community Social Presence Teaching Presence Setting Climate Supporting Discourse Community of Inquiry Model (CoI) Critical Inquiry in a Text-Based Environment Garrison, Anderson, and Archer (2002) Selecting Content Cognitive PresenceCommunity of Inquiry Framework Social Presence The ability of participants to identify with the community (e.g., course of study), communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, and develop inter-personal relationships by way of projecting their individual personalities. Cognitive Presence The extent to which learners are able to construct and confirm meaning through sustained reflection and discourse in a critical community of inquiry. Teaching Presence The design, facilitation and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomesELEMENTS CATEGORIES INDICATORS (examples only) Social Presence Open Communication Learning climate/risk-free expression Group Cohesion Group identity/collaboration Personal/Affective Self projection/expressing emotions Cognitive Presence Triggering Event Sense of puzzlement Exploration Information exchange Integration Connecting ideas Resolution Applying new ideas Teaching Presence Design & Organization Setting curriculum & methods Facilitating Discourse Shaping constructive exchange Direct Instruction Clarifying, explaining, demonstrating Elements,Categories & IndicatorsOur Recent Research on CoI in the SUNY Learning Network Shea, P. & Bidjerano, T. (2009). Community of inquiry as a theoretical framework to foster "epistemic engagement" and "cognitive presence" in online education. Computers and Education, 52 (3), 543 – 553. Shea, P., & Bidjerano, T. (2008). Measures of quality in online education: An investigation of the community of inquiry model and the net generation. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 39 (4), 339-361. Shea, P., Li, C. S. & Pickett, A. (2006). A study of “teaching presence” and student sense of learning community in online and classroom environments. The Internet and Higher Education, 9(3), 175-191 Shea, P. (2006). A study of students’ sense of learning community in online environments. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 10(1), 35-44. Shea, P., Li, C., Swan, K., & Pickett, A. (2005). Developing learning community in online asynchronous learning networks. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 9(4), 59-82. Shea, P., Pickett, A., & Pelz, W. (2003). A follow-up investigation of teaching presence in the SUNY Learning Network. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 7(2), 61-80. .Online Learning Community Social Presence Teaching Presence (Assessment Centered) Setting Climate Supporting Discourse Prompt Feedback Contact Between Students and Faculty Reciprocity and Cooperation The 7 principles of good practice encourage: A Conceptual Framework for High Quality, Higher- Education, Online Learning Chickering and Gamson, (1987) Critical Inquiry in a Text-Based Environment Garrison, Anderson, and Archer (2002) Selecting Content Cognitive Presence (Knowledge Centered) Time on Task Active Learning Techniques Communication of High Expectations Respect for Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning Bransford, et al (2002) “How People Learn” (Learner Centered)Teaching Presence “The design, facilitation, and direction of cognitive and social process for the realization of personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes.” (Anderson et al 2001) In a learner-centered environment “teaching presence” is established by both instructors and students.Teaching Presence 1.Instructional Design and Organization 2.Facilitating Discourse 3.Direct InstructionInstructional Design and Organization Setting the Curriculum Designing Methods Establishing Time Parameters Utilizing the Medium Effectively Establishing Netiquette Teaching Presence Instructional Design and Organization Facilitating Discourse Direct InstructionFacilitating Discourse Identifying areas of agreement and disagreement Seeking to reach consensus/understanding Encouraging, acknowledging, and reinforcing student contributions Setting climate for learning Drawing in participants, prompting discussion Assessing the efficacy of the process Teaching Presence Instructional Design and Organization Facilitating Discourse Direct InstructionDirect Instruction Presenting content and questions Focusing the discussion Summarizing the discussion Confirming understanding Diagnosing misperceptions Injecting knowledge from diverse sources Responding to technical concerns More than 300 SUNY faculty engaged in day-long teaching presence workshops designed to revise and improve their online courses Also received follow-up support from an assigned instructional designer to assist with implementing ideas from the workshop in their online courses Faculty Training and Teaching PresenceQuestions that participants addressed included: 1) What is teaching presence, why is it important? 2) How do we measure or identify teaching presence in an online course? 3) What are some instructional design elements that can enhance teaching presence? 4) How can we improve teaching presence through online classroom management? 5) What tools does the SLN Course Management System (CMS) provide to facilitate teaching presence?Teaching Presence Study Faculty who participated in Teaching Presence workshops and received follow-up support. Both faculty and students completed surveys designed to measure teaching presence in their courses 40 questions 366 Faculty responded 101 Faculty respondents had taken the workshop 6063 Students responded in all 954 Students of faculty who had taken the workshop respondedResults Related to Teaching Presence Workshop AttendeesResults Related to the Workshop on Teaching Presence • Teaching Presence Survey (Spring 2008) • Results indicate that students (N= 954) in courses taught by faculty who attended the Teaching Presence workshop (N=101) rated their instructors and courses higher on all of the measure of teaching presence • Student rated courses significantly higher on the following measures of teaching presence relative to students whose instructors had not attended the training:Significantly Higher Ratings for Workshop Attendees • Drawing in participants, prompting discussion (instructor and other students) • Staying on Task (instructor and students) • Focus the discussion on specific issues (instructor and other students) • Confirming understanding (other students)Significantly Higher Ratings for Workshop Attendees • Injecting knowledge from diverse sources (instructor) • Utilizing the medium effectively • Establishing netiquette • Identifying areas of agreement/disagreement • Seeking to reach consensusResults: Workshop on Teaching Presence • Student Satisfaction Students whose instructors had attended the teaching presence workshop also reported significantly higher levels of satisfaction with their courses then their peers whose instructors had not attended. • Reported Learning Students of instructors who had participated in teaching presence workshop were significantly more likely to report that their learning was higher online than for similar classes they had taken in the classroom.Conclusions This and previous studies reveal teaching presence measures correlate highly with measures of student satisfaction and reported learning. Student satisfaction and reported learning are more closely associated with instructor’s teaching-presence behaviors than those of other students. Students look to faculty for lead role. IMPORTANT Faculty who engaged in workshops on Teaching Presence benefited in terms of improved student satisfaction and reported learning. These student rate their instructors as more effective and their online learning as superior to classroom instruction, per recent research on online learning (e.g. Means, et. al., 2009).Other Recent Research o Using factor analysis and SEM o Survey of 5000 online students in 40 colleges o Asked questions about quality of online learning based on CoI framework o Results: items cohere into “constructs” o Constructs can be used to predict variance in student ratings of their learning (CP)Teaching Presence Indicators o When the Instructor (examples): o clearly communicates important course topics o clearly communicates important course goals o provides clear instructions on how to participate in course learning activities o clearly communicates important due dates/time frames for learning activities o identifies areas of learner agreement and disagreement o Fosters resolutionSocial Presence Indicators o It facilitates: o Getting to know other course participants provides a sense of belonging o Ability to form distinct impressions of some course participants o Perception that online or web-based communication is good medium for social interaction o Comfort conversing through the online medium o Comfort participating in the course discussionsCognitive Presence Indicators o Online discussions were valuable in helping me appreciate different perspectives o Combining new information helps me answer questions raised in course activities o Learning activities help me construct explanations/solutions o Reflection on course content and discussions help me understand fundamental concepts o I can describe ways to test and apply the knowledge created in this course o I can develop solutions to course problems that can be applied in practice o I can apply the knowledge created in the course to work or other non-class related activitiesTeachingPresenceq12.38q11.28q10.24q9.27q8.18q7.23q6.19q5.24q4.53q3.43q2.40q1.37.891.851.871.851.901.881.901.871.6911.781.801q1346.741CognitivePresenceq34.44q33.39q32.40q31.27q30.27q29.29q28.49q27.44q26.47q25.34q24..36q23.48.751.781.781.851.861.841.721.751.721.811.801.721SocialPresenceq22.40q21.38q20.41q19.18q18.29q17.27q16.62q15.67q14.65.77.781.771.911.861.851.621.581.591.52(.49)**GenderAgeAcademicLevel.06(.04)*.02(.08)**.00(.01).06*.00.22**.75.52(.52)**.49(.47)**Community of Inquiry Model Significant Learning Instructional Role Collaborative Online Environment Accounts for 70% of varianceWhat seems to be missing? Inputs • Online Instructor role (TP) • Online Learning Environment (SP) • X? Outcomes • Significant Learning (CP) • Hmmm….Learner Presence Describes those behaviors that are specific to the learner and which online instructors do not and cannot demonstrate (i.e. not traditional TP) E.g. student-student collaborations in which (solely) learners, a) negotiate logistics, b) interpret instructor provided instructions, c) plan elements of L2L collaborative projects Also describes strategic self-regulatory learning behaviors in which successful online students engageWhat is LP? Learning to learn “online” Online learner self regulation Meta-cognition - reflection Self efficacy online Motivation for online learning Intentional control of effort online Intentional control of affect online Strategic learning in online environments Why?: It can be “taught” and “learned”Online Learner Presence o Strategic online students engage in monitoring and self-regulation of online behavior including effective control of temporal, spatial, technological, and human resources Includes regulation of learner time management, study environment (e.g., the place in which they participate in the online course), technologies used, and online interactions with peers and faculty members to seek help o Learner self-regulation of motivation and affect involves identifying and addressing motivational beliefs such as self-efficacy and goal orientation, to adapt to the demands of an online course. Successful online students monitor and regulate motivation, emotions and affect (such as anxiety) in ways that impact their learning. o Strategic learner self-regulation of cognition involves monitoring and intentional control of various cognitive strategies for learning, conscious and intentional use of self regulated strategies (e.g. self monitoring, self explanation, elaboration, rehearsal) that result in better learning and performance (adapted from Garcia & Pintrich, 1994; Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeache, 1993).Evidence for online “LP” Nine studies (Bixler 2008; Chang 2007; Chung, Chung and Severance 1999; Cook et al. 2005; Crippen and Earl 2007; Nelson 2007; Saito and Miwa 2007; Shen, Lee and Tsai 2007; Wang et al. 2006) examined the degree to which promoting aspects of learner self reflection in a Web-based environment improved learning outcomes. These studies found that a tool or feature prompting online students to reflect on their learning was effective in improving outcomes. Means, et. al. (2009) More recent research indicates online learner self regulation can be measured, profiled, and is a predictor of GPA (Barnard-Brak, Lan, Patton, 2010)Other evidence for “LP” Overall, the available research evidence suggests that promoting self-reflection, self-regulation and self- monitoring leads to more positive online learning outcomes. Features such as prompts for reflection, self-explanation and self-monitoring strategies have shown promise for improving online learning outcomes. Means, et. al. (2009)Other evidence for LP The clearest recommendation for practice (…)is to incorporate mechanisms that promote student reflection on their level of understanding. A dozen studies have investigated what effects manipulations that trigger learner reflection and self- monitoring of understanding have on individual students’ online learning outcomes. Ten studies found that experimental manipulations offered advantages over online learning that did not provide the trigger for reflection. (Means, et. al., 2009)Our current research Survey of over 3000 online learners Study of elements of self regulated learning Measures of self-efficacy and effort regulation as predictors of CoI constructs in blended and fully online courses Results: Self efficacy “predicts” CoI measures Support for self-efficacy is even more important in fully online courses than in blended/hybrid courses.New Hypothesized CoI Relational ModelWhat can you do? Think about a course you teach. How might you promote better learner presence (LP) in your own online course(s)? Think of the three dimensions – learner reflection and subsequent regulation of: • Cognition • Behaviors • Affect/MotivationCurrent research Can we use learning journals to promote online learner reflection and self regulation? Provide prompts to reflect on behavior, motivation, and cognition? Prompts to promote better • time management, tracking learning time (behavior) • reflections on what is confusing (cognition) • what do I know, what do I need to know (cognition) • how does this apply beyond my course, to my life? (motivation) • am I engaged in my course? Why? Why not? (motivation)Questions Thank you! Peter Shea pshea@uamail.albany.edu 518-442-4009Teaching Presence: A New View Total Instructor TP In Discussion‐4‐20246810121416M1M2M3M4M5Instructor AInstructor BLinear (InstructorA)Linear (InstructorB)Total Instructor TP Coursewide01020304050607080M1M2M3M4M5Instructor AInstructor BLinear (InstructorA)Linear (InstructorB

    Organizational resilience: Is there evidence for what works to support business continuity?

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    The purpose of this presentation is to examine and critique the varied literature & commentary on sustaining organizational continuity and to determine if there is supporting evidence for what works. BP oil spill; Lehman Brothers; Wall Street meltdown; Apple’s IPhone, Amazon’s Kindle—whether the result of disaster, unexpected events or competition, recent events have highlighted the need for effectively dealing with situations that threaten continuity of operations (COOP) (Weick and Sutcliffe, 2007, p. ix)—that is, to be resilient. Most definitions emphasize resilience as the ability to ‘bounce back’ from difficulties: “the capability to rebound from a disaster …and return to normal functioning with little delay” (Chandra/RAND, p 2); “dynamic process encompassing positive adaptation within the context of significant adversity” (Luther et al, p.543); “the ability to reinvent business models and strategies as circumstances change” (Hamel & Valikangas, 2003, p 53). Others focus on the need for proactive approaches: the ‘identification of potential risks, proactive steps, to ensure an organization thrives in the face of adversity” (Somers, 2009, pp 13+); creating “a rapid, flexible, innovative and effective response when a future crisis presents itself” (Boin and Lagadec, 2000, p 188). The analyses are connected to point(s) on a resilience continuum.Organizational Resilience: Is there Evidence for What Works to Support Business Continuity? Claudine SchWeber, Ph.D. Marcia Bouchard , DM University of Maryland University College April 14, 2011 1Business Continuity & Resilience • Continuity of operations (coop): “an institution’s ability to maintain or restore its business…when some circumstance threatens or disrupts normal operations” • Resilience perspectives: Content: Economic: “ability to reinvent business models and strategies as circumstances change” Process: Anticipatory: “Identification of potential risks, proactive steps to [enable survival]”; Crisis: ‘capability to rebound from disaster...and return to normal functioning’ 2Primary Focus of the literature • Individual • Community • Organization/ management 3Definitions --Examples • “…positive adaptation in any kind of dynamic system that comes under challenge or threat.” (Masten & Wright, 2009, p. 215) • “the capability to rebound from a disaster…and to return to normal functioning with little delay” (Chandra et al., 2010) • “capacity to cope with unanticipated dangers after they have become manifest…[learning to] bounce back” (Comfort, 1994, p. 158) 4What does the literature indicate about “what works” to promote business continuity? 5 Research Question Resilience Continuum 6 Anticipation (preparation) Management during event (response) Resilience (recovery) Thriving or Hyper – resilience (better off) Crisis: Trigger Event7 Method • Modified “Evidence-Based Research” (pioneered at Carnegie Mellon) • Literature search –57 sources: books or book chapters, scholarly articles, professional articles, dissertations, special reports/white papers. • Inclusion/exclusion criteria: 45 items remained • Analyzed resources—3 major themes: a) anticipation-preparation; b) leadership; c) communicationCon’t • Systematic review to “identify, acquire, extract and synthesize existing research studies” (Leseure et al, 2004, p. 14) • 57initial Sources = 9 books/chapters; 34 scholarly articles; 10 professional articles; 2 dissertations; 2 white papers 8Method step 1 • Key Word Searches--scholarly: 48 documents found for: (resilience and corporations) OR (resilience and firms) OR (resilience and corporation) OR (resilience and enterprises) OR (resilient firms) OR (resilient corporations) OR (resilient enterprises) and more…. Total = 57 9Method step 2–ResearchClassification 10Step 3:Exclusion/Inclusion Criteria • Exclusion: focused on individuals (i.e. child trauma, drug addiction); government entities; or had a narrow scope (e.g. supply chain); published before 1990 • Inclusion: focus on organizations; identifiable concepts related to resilience; referred to stage in continuum; published between 1990-2010. • N=45 11Step 4:Analysis by Major Themes 12Step 5: Literature Scoring 13Step 6: Literature Assessment 14Limitations • Modified EBR Method • Limited search to 57 original resources45 • Did not carry out scoring (step 5); assessment (step 6) • Limited direct attention to recovery stage 15What we learned Re What Works? Primary Focus: Anticipation-Preparation • Become a High Reliability Organization (HRO) • Develop a ‘culture of resilience’ • Responsibility of Senior Leadership: avoid ‘amnesia syndrome’; develop a ‘preoccupation with [potential] failure’; conduct resilience audits; take charge • Hire staff with experience (‘strategic hires’) 16What we learned (2) • Identify and develop ‘back-up’ systems: technology, other business locations, reserve fund. e.g. Xavier U and Hurricane Katrina—tech backup in California. • Delegate decision-making throughout organization; able to make decisions in ‘unfamiliar contexts’ (e.g. 9/11 and Morgan Stanley) 17What we learned (3) • Leadership, Communication Able to make decisions under pressure Develop and test BCM plans Communicate with various stakeholders, including the public (not just Board members)—early and often! Establish a communication management strategy, plan, resources and implementation, and continual review Plan for reputation management with stakeholders, media. 18Conclusion Organization resilience requires: Executive attention—commitment to a culture of resilience Avoidance of complacency (HRO) Periodic internal communication and readiness to implement external communication plan Identifying and critiquing lessons learned …Practice, Practice, Practice 19Further Research • Case analyses • Expand EBR process to include steps 5 (assessment criteria) and 6 (scoring) • Read and compare scholar and practitioner perspectives • Explore the ‘leadership’ issue more intensivelyThank You Comments/Questions Suggested resources using secondary literature: www.aimresearch.org www.evidencebased-management.com Please contact us at: cschweber@umuc.edu marcia.bouchard@gmail.com 2

    Organizational management improvement through planned decision support tools in technology based organizations

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    The purpose of the research: -To improve organizational decision making -Help managers achieve their objectives -Reduce rate of change failureOrganizational Management Improvement Through Planned Decision Support Tools in Technology Based Organizations. Ken Pierson Doctor of Management Program (DMGT 892) Keywords Organizational Improvement, Change Management, Decision Making, Decision Support Systems, Domain KnowledgePurpose and Scope of the Research Purpose of research: -To improve organizational decision making -Help managers achieve their objectives -Reduce rate of change failure Scope of research: -Technology based organizations -Decision support systemsResearch Assumptions • Improve organizational performance through improved change management processes. • Organizational decision making canbe improved through a systems perspective. • Change management processes is dependent on effective decision making processes? • Decision support tools willimprove the decision making thereby enhancing the organizations competitive posture?Significance of this Research for Management Implementation of organization improvement through: -Change management processes supported by effective and efficient decision making -Improved organizational decision making processes with Decision Support Systems (DSS) -DSS supported by knowledge management Main Literature Themes and Authors Organizational Improvement Henry Mintzberg John Kotter Peter Drucker Systems Thinking Peter Senge Diana White & Joyce Fortune Organizational Decision Making Herbert Simon Max Bazerman Decision Support Systems J.D. Powers Clyde HolsappleKey Propositions Distilledfrom the Literature -Organizational survival depends on effective decision making. -Change is inevitable and must be correctly managed in order for an organization to remain competitive. -Knowledge Management is a key element of a DSS and a dynamic process; it must be updated.Conceptual Framework -Economic Forces -Technological Forces -Political Forces -Legal Forces -Socio-cultural Forces Source(Hunger & Wheelen, 2007) External Change Environment The DSS Database Model Base DBMS MBMS DGMS Data Component Dialog Component Model Component User DBMS –Database Management System MBMS-Model Base Management System DGMS-Dialog Generation Management System From: McNurlin & Sprague, 2006 -Type of Industry -Communications -Trust -Processes -Collaborative Environment -Corporate Culture Internal Change Environment Knowledge Management Data Warehouse Improved Organization ResultThesis statement Decisions associated with changes are often hindered by several challenging factors -Decisions must be made quickly -Internal and external environment drives continuous change often occurring simultaneously and affecting interdependencies. -The quality of a decision is affected by a vast array of variables. Decision Support Systems (DSSs) are an effective means for mitigating the complexities of organizational change. Change Management Organizational Decision Making DecisionMakingTools Systems Thinking Organizational Improvement Integrate Literature Review Determine Key Components of Organizational Improvement Analyze Key Elements Research Approach & Formationof Argument Findings • Organizational changes require highly rational decisions. • Managers must recognize the importance of the decisions. • Systems thinking is supported by effective Knowledge Management. • Knowledge Management is key component to DSS. • Managers believe they know their product better than anyone else. • • An alternative to manual decision making processes is a computer based DSS. Implications for Management Practice • Improve situational awareness of organizational managers • Faster higher quality decisions • Improved organizational performance • Remain competitive in rapid change environmentFuture Research Agendas Supply Chain Management (SCM) Analyze upstream and downstream decision support processes Enhanced innovative process Monitor external environment for innovative opportunities and readiness. Support for organizations in globalization process Determine what extent DSS can support new and established global operation

    1988 - 1990 UMUC Europe Munich - Catalog

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    Europe;International Mail The University of Maryland Munich Campus Postfach 900 760 8000 Mllnchen 90 From the United States From European Commands The University of Maryland The University of Maryland Munich Campus Munich Campus APO New York 09407 APO 09407 Telephone: Military 6530/6535; Civilian (089) 690-0093 Telex: 522737 UNYMA:D Resident Life Office: Military 6083; Civilian (089) 690-2650 Office Hours: Monday through Friday, 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Cable: UNYMA, Munich 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ,1 Alphabetical Guide Academic Advising by Faculty 41 Academic Calendar 1988/89/90 3-4 Academic Policies, Standards and Honors 59 Acceptance of Advanced Credit 56 Administration 107 Admission 9 Course Descriptions 66 Cultural Activities and Study Tours 36 Curriculum and Degrees 47 Extra-Curricular Activities 32 Facilities 27 Faculty 102 Financial Assistance 18 Federal Financial Aid 21 Job Opportunity Center 22 Scholarship Program 23-24 Veterans Administration Educational Benefits 25 Introduction 5 The Munich Campus 6 The City of Munich 8 Resident Life Office 30 Registration and Enrollment Information 43 Student Advisement and Counseling 41 Transfer of Credits and Student Records 54 Tuition and Fees 14 2 Academic Calendar 1988/89/90 Fall Semester 1988 August 20 August 20 August 21 August 22 August 23 August 24 August 30 October 7 October 12 October 18 October 25-28 November 4 November 22 November 28 Nov 28-Dec 2 December 9 December 16 December 17 Dec 24-Jan2 January 3 9:00a.m. 5:00 p.m. 9:00a.m. 9:00 a.m. Allday 8:00a.m. 5:00 p.m. After classes 8:00a.m. After classes 8:00a.m. 5:00 p.m. Spring Semester 1989 January 14 January 14 January 15 January 15 January 16 January 17 January 23 February 3 February 8 March 13 March 17 March 18 April 1 April 3 April 4-7 April 14 April 24-28 May 6 May 12 May 19 May 20 August 1 9:00a.m. 5:00 p.m. 9:00 a.m. 12:00 noon 8:00a.m. 5:00p.m. After classes 8:00a.m. After classes 5:00 p.m. 9:00a.m. 8:00a.m. 5:00p.m. Dormitories open for new students Placement tests for new students begin Parent Orientation Dormitories open for returning students Registration Day CLASSES BEGIN End of late registration and class adjustment week Fall Recess begins Classes reconvene Mid-semester Mid-semester faculty advising Last day to withdraw from any classes Thanksgiving Recess begins Classes reconvene Spring semester registration advisement LAST DAY OF CLASSES Last day of Final Examinations Dormitories close All offices are closed DEADLINE: Last day to cancel room reservation for Spring Semester (or deposit forfeited) Dormitories open for new students Placement tests for new students begin Parent Orientation Dormitories open for returning students Registration Day CLASSES BEGIN End of late registration and class adjustment week Spring recess begins Classes reconvene Mid-semester Easter Vacation Dormitories close Dormitories open Classes reconvene Mid-semester faculty advising Last day to withdraw from any classes Fall semester registration advisement Academic Achievement Ceremony and Banquet LAST DAY OF CLASSES Last day of Final Examinations Dormitories close DEADLINE: Last day to cancel room reservation for Fall Semester (or deposit forfeited) 3 Fall Semester 1989 August 19 August 19 August 20 August 21 August 22 August 23 August 29 October 6 October 11 October 17 Oct 24-27 November 3 November 21 November 27 Nov 27-Dec 1 December 8 December 15 December 16 Dec 23-Jan 1 January 2 9:00 a.m. 5:00 p.m. 9:00a.m. 9:00a.m. All day 8:00a.m. 5:00 p.m. After classes 8:00a.m. After classes 8:00a.m. 5:00 p.m. Spring Semester 1990 January 20 January 20 January 21 January 21 January 22 January 23 January 29 February 23 February 28 March 19 March 27-30 April 6 April 6 April 7 April 21 April 23 April 24-27 May 12 May 18 May 25 May 26 August 1 9:00a.m. 5:00 p.m. 9:00 a.m. 12:00 noon 8:00a.m. 5:00p.m. After classes 8:00a.m. After classes 5:00 p.m. 9:00a.m. 8:00a.m. 5:00 p.m. Dormitories open for new students Placement tests for new students begin Parent Orientation Dormitories open for returning sudents Registration Day CLASSES BEGIN End of late registration and class adjustment week Fall Recess begins Classes reconvene Mid-semester Mid-semester faculty advising Last day to withdraw from any classes Thanksgiving Recess begins Classes reconvene Spring semester registration advisement LAST DAY OF CLASSES Last day of Final Examinations Dormitories close All offices are closed DEADLINE: Last day to cancel room reservation for Spring Semester (or deposit forfeited) Dormitories open for new students Placement tests for new students begin Parent Orientation Dormitories open for returning students Registration Day CLASSES BEGIN End of late registration and class adjustment week Spring recess begins Classes reconvene Mid-semester Mid-semester faculty advising Last day to withdraw from any classes Easter Vacation Dormitories close Dormitories open Classes reconvene Fall semester registration advisement Academic Achievement Ceremony and Banquet LAST DAY OF CLASSES Last day of Final Examinations Dormitories close DEADLINE: Last day to cancel room reservation for Fall Semester (or deposit forfeited) 4 Introduction The University of Maryland System: Few institutions of higher education in the United States have as rich and proud a heritage as The University of Maryland. Founded in 1807 at the site of the present Baltimore Campus with the establish­ment of the nation's fifth College of Medicine, the school soon added colleges of dentistry, pharmacy and law. A half-century later, the College Park Campus, the University's largest and one of the largest in the nation, began. The University of Maryland consists of five divisions: • The University of Maryland, College Park, which offers over 110 under­graduate majors and 73 graduate programs. • The University of Maryland, Baltimore County, which emphasizes under­graduate education and selected graduate programs. • The University of Maryland, Eastern Shore, with programs in liberal arts, pre-professional and graduate education. • The University of Maryland at Baltimore, which concentrates on profes­sional and graduate education. • The University of Maryland University College, which emphasizes continu­ing education programs and offers courses throughout the State of Mary­land, through its Asian Division, and through the European Division. The Munich Campus is part of the European Division. Accreditation The University of Maryland University College is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools. 5 The Munich Campus The University of Maryland Munich Campus was established in 1950 as a resi­dential, coeducational and full-time college for family members of U.S. military and Department of Defense personnel living in Europe. A few dozen students, most of whom had graduated from U.S. military high schools in Europe, walked through the doors of The University of Maryland Munich Campus in October 1950. Today, some 18,000 students later, the Munich Campus student body consists of 650 young men and women enrolled in 155 classes, ranging from anthropology to zoology. It is the only residential school of its kind in the American military system. Not a community college, not a junior college, the Munich Campus is uniquely an integral part of a major state university system which offers the first two years of that university's curriculum in liberal arts, sciences and business. The Munich Campus has structured its program to meet the following objectives: 1. to provide a traditional American freshman and sophomore curriculum which is flexible enough to meet the needs of students who will transfer to other colleges or universities as well as the students who will seek employ­ment in the working world. 2. to promote an understanding of the European setting. 3. to accommodate and build upon the international background and experi­ence of its student body. The two-year program awards the Associate in Arts degree in General Studies and in Management. Visitors to the Munich Campus are often amazed at the school's resources: fully­equipped laboratories, generous library facilities, residence halls, study suites and a location in one of the most attractiv'3 cities in the world. The Munich Campus faculty, half of whom hold the doctorate, are on a par with faculty of esteemed four-year colleges. With a small college environment, average class size of 22, qualified faculty and personalized attention, the Munich Campus offers an experience which pro­motes the true spirit of education: a balanced, positive development of the best human powers, whether individual, social or intellectual. 6 UNIVERSITY OF MARYL NO The City of M1.1nich Munich is Bavaria's capital and the third largest city in Germany -a city with more castles, concert halls, art galleries, museums and libraries than you can possibly visit in two years. The Olympic Park offers students a giant playground for swimming, skating and sports events. The Olympia Hall is where the most famous pop stars, bands and entertainers regularly perform. Munich is only a short drive away from some of the world's best skiing. The metropolitan area covers 310 square kilometers with more than 1.3 million inhabitants. Over 90,000 college students make Munich the leading German university town. Munich Campus is located in southwest Munich on McGraw Kaserne. The climate is diverse and unpredictable. Winters can be cold, with heavy snowfall. April often brings brilliant warm days while in early May, one fre­quently sees the return of cold weather. It is therefore advisable that you bring sufficient seasonal clothing with you. The German monetary unit is the mark (DM) which is divided into 100 pfennigs. Coins are issued in the denominations L 2, 5, 10 and 50 pfennigs, and L 2 and 5 marks; there are 5, 10,20,50 and 100 mark bills. You can change money at any bank, travel bureau or railway station. The conversion rate is listed daily in the Stars and Stripes. 1£ you arrive in Munich by train, a taxi to McGraw Kaserne costs approximately 15 marks. A taxi from the airport costs between 20 and 25 marks. Most taxi drivers speak English and they all know where McGraw Kaserne is located. 8 Admission Eligibility for USAREUR Logistical Support In addition to meeting the academic requirements for admission given below, all applicants must be entitled to USAREUR logistical support while attending the Munich Campus. Members of the U.S. Armed Forces, American employees of the U.S. Government and their family members are normally entitled to USAR­EUR logistical support. Eligibility for USAREUR support facilities is governed by USAREUR regulations and agreements with the German government. Students whose sponsors are stationed outside of Germany are not eligible to use the Commissary or the Post Exchange. Academic Requirements for Admission In general the Munich Campus requires freshman applicants to earn a high school diploma prior to their first registration at the University. Applicants should see that their final high school transcripts are sent to the Office of Admissions prior to enrolling. All admissions are contingent upon satisfactory completion of current work. • Freshman Admission a) The Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) is required of all freshman appli­cants. b) A cumulative grade-point average will be calculated based on the academic courses completed in grades 9 through 11 of high school. Mid­year senior grades may also be requested if necessary and used in calculation of the academic grade point average. c) Freshman applicants must meet one of the following combinations of high school grade-point average and SAT scores: 9 Applicants are strongly advised to meet the following course requirements: In addition, students are encouraged to take at least two years of a foreign language. • Transfer Student Admission Applicants who have attempted twelve or more semester hours of college­level work are defined as transfer students. Transfer students with a mini­mum C average (2.00 on a 4.00 scale) at their institution will be eligible for admission. In cases where there is more than one previous institution, the average of all institutions attended will be cumulative. • Part-Time Student Admission Students enrolling for fewer than nine semester hours are defined as part­time Special Students. Applicants in this category are not required to sub­mit transcripts at the time of registration. If part-time Special Students wish to change their status at a later date to either full-time status or to degree­seeking status, they must submit official high school and college transcripts and meet the admission requirements in effect at that time. • Auditors Applicants who do not wish to receive credit or grades for courses may be admitted as Auditors. Auditors pay the same tuition and fees as those taking the courses for credit. Applicants in this category are not required to submit high school or college transcripts. 10 • Special Admission Situations 1. Admission on the Basis of General Education Development Test (GED) Applicants who are at least 16 years of age will be considered for admission by presenting the high school General Education Devel­opment Test with a total standard score of 225 (no score below 40 on any of the five tests) or a minimum score of 45 on each test. 2. Concurrent Enrollment of High School Senior High school seniors may enroll at the Munich Campus if the following provisions are met: a. Achievement of a B+ average or better in academic subjects com­pleted through the junior year. b. Permission of the high school with the understanding that the credits earned in college courses will not be accepted to satisfy high school graduation requirements. c. The enrollment will be limited to seven semester hours each semes­ter. d. The enrollment will be limited to courses which are widely acknowl­edged by colleges to be freshman year courses. High school seniors are admihed as part-time special students. If such students wish to continue at the Munich Campus after high school graduation, they must apply and meet the freshman admission require­ments in effect at that time. 3. The University recognizes that there are many talented and capable students with the potential to complete academic programs successfully but who do not meet the admission requirements. A certain number of applicants who can support their request for special consideration may be admitted on a Provisional Admission Status. Experience has demon­strated that, when such students are highly motivated and willing to use the full range of support services available, they are able to achieve academic goals. (See College Work Study Skills, Counseling Center.) Applicants for a Provisional Admission Status may present the relevant information in a letter accompanying the Application for Admission or they may request an interview in the Admissions Office. 4. Readmission Former students who have interrupted their attendance at the Munich Campus for one or more semesters must apply for readmission by submitting an Application for Admission. 11 • Failure to Qualify for Admission Applicants who have been denied admission to the Munich Campus may take courses with The University of Maryland's European Division, which offers courses at Army and Air Force bases throughout the European Com­mand. After completion of at least 12 semester hours with a minimum overall C average, students may be reconsidered for admission at the Munich Campus. Application Procedure 1. Submit an Application for Admission with the $20 application fee. The Application for Admission may be obtained from the Munich Campus Ad­missions Office, from DODDS high schools or from local Armed Forces Education Centers. The application fee is non-refundable. Applicants who have previously attended any branch of The University of Maryland are not required to pay the application fee. Payment must be made by check or money order payable to The University of Maryland, Munich Campus. 2. Submit an official high school transcript and official transcripts from any colleges or universities previously attended. Only official transcripts, those which have been sent by the issuing institutions directly to the Munich Campus Admissions Office, will be considered as a basis of admission. 3. Freshman students must submit the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Test results may be submitted directly to Munich Campus by the Educational Testing Service by indicating Code Number 0988 on the testing registration form. Applicants are encouraged to take the Preliminary Scholastic Apti­tude Test (PSAT) during their junior year in high school and the SAT early in their senior year. Application Dates Although applications will be accepted through the last date of registration, applicants are encouraged to apply at least four to six months in advance of a semester in order to ensure space in the residence halls. It is recommended that high school students apply early in their senior year. An admission decision will be made upon receipt of an Application for Admission, the SAT scores and the high school transcript. Applicants who do not meet the minimum combinations of grade-point averages and SAT scores may be ad­vised to resubmit their high school transcript after the seventh or eighth semester grades have been recorded. 12 Additional Information Complete information about the Munich Campus can be obtained by calling or writing the Office of Admissions. Prospective students are encouraged to attend one of the regularly scheduled "Saturday Morning on Campus" programs. In addition to these programs, prospective students and their parents are invited to request an individualized tour of Munich Campus. Such visits are offered each weekday by appointment when classes are in session. • "Saturday Morning on Campus" Programs Each semester, the Office of Admissions invites visitors to the Munich Cam­pus to meet with students, faculty and staff. These visits include a tour of the campus and dormitories and an opportunity for visitors to discuss their interests and concerns with a member of the Admissions, Financial Aid or Honors Program staff. The campus visits begin at 10:00 a.m. Allow about three hours for the program and the tour of the campus. Details regarding these programs are sent in advance to the DODDS high schools and to Education Centers. • Munich Campus Student Ambassador Program Student Ambassadors reflect a broad cross-section of the student body and they participate in a variety of activities sponsored by the Office of Admis­sions. In addition to serving on the Admissions Policy Advisory Board, they also are available to introduce prospective students and their parents to the Munich Campus. The two major activities of the Student Ambassador Pro­gram are to participate in the "Saturday Morning on Campus Program," and to present panel discussions in selected high schools on topics of importance to high school juniors and seniors. • Orientation Program Shortly before the beginning of each new semester, all new students will receive information about the Orientation Program. Regularly scheduled events in the fall semester include a parent orientation on Sunday morning and a social activity for students on Sunday afternoon. Student orientation continues with student-led discussion groups, English and math placement testing, group faculty counseling, individual faculty counseling, tours of Munich and a variety of get-acquainted social activities. 13 Tuition and Fees The University reserves the right to make changes in tuition and fees. Although every effort will be made to keep the cost to students as low as possible, it is likely that the tuition will increase from the 1987/88 figures printed below. Tuition ations less than nine semester 82 $ 270 10 1,460 210 1,670 $ 280 $ 1.950 $ 180 $ 266 $ 266 The sponsor will be sent an invoice before the beginning of each semester from the Accounting Office. The standard fees must be paid by the student's registra­tion date unless the sponsor chooses the Partial Payment Plan. Under this pro­gram, one-half of the standard fees must be paid by the registration date, and the second payment is due within one month. A $10 Partial Payment Service Charge will be assessed for this option and will be added to the first payment. All checks or money orders are to be made payable to The University of Mary­land, Munich Campus. Supplemental invoices will be sent to the sponsor after the beginning of the semester for charges such as Late Registration Fees, Course Withdrawal Fees and Special Course Fees. 14 Explanation of Fees Application Fee $ 20.00 Associate in Arts Degree Application Fee $ 25.00 Boarding Plans Breakfast $ 180 Lunch $ 266 Dinner $ 266 Course Withdrawal Fee $ 5.00 Special Course Fees $ 10.00-$ 60.00 Foreign Language Examination Fee $ 35.00/credit hour Late Registration Fee $ 30.00 Mandatory Fees $210 The Application Fee is non-refundable, but will be required only once if the applicant enrolls in the semester which was designated on the Application Form. Applicants who have previously attended any division of The University of Maryland are not required to pay this fee. Payable when applying for an Associate in Arts Degree. It is non-refundable. The optional boarding plans are payable by the registration date. They are non-refundable. Charged to students who withdraw from a course after the first week of classes. Charged for supplies and equipment used in courses such as science laboratories, computer lab­oratories and art studios. This fee must be paid at the time of application for a foreign examination in the Admissions Office. Charged to students who do not register and make full payment of fees prior to beginni

    1998-1999 Undergraduate Catalog

    No full text
    US;COMMUNICATION STUDIES All courses in communication swdies (designated COMhl) may be applied toward a primary or secondary specialization in communication studies; and electives. COMM 390. 393, and 394. as well as ENGL 303.391, and 396, and PLGL 40 I. are designated as writing-intensive and may be applied (Oward the general education requirement in upper-level writing. COMM 380. 395. 490. 491. 492. 493. 494. and 495 may be applied (Oward the general education requiremem in commu­nications. bur not (Oward the general education requirement in upper-level writing. COMM 393 and COMM 394 may be applied (Oward supporting credit for a primary or a secondary specialization in business and management, compurer science, computer and information science. computer studies, health services management. information systems management, manage­ment. management studies, and other areas as approved by a counselor. A description of the curriculum begins on p. 22. Other writing. as well as literature. courses are available under the discipline of English. COMM293 Technical Report Writing (3) (Formerly ENGL 293. Fulfills the general education require­ment in communications.) Prerequisite: ENGL 101 or equivalent. An introduction (0 the process of technical writing. Discussion covers conducting audience and needs analyses; organizing and writing clear, precise. grammatically correct technical prose; and producing a variety of routine technical reports and correspondence. Students may receive credit for only one of the following courses: COMM 293 or ENGL 293. COMM 380 Language in Social Contexts (3) (Fulfills the general education requirement in communications but is not a writing course. Fulfills the historic and international perspective requirements.) Prerequisite: ENGL 101 or equiva­lent. An examination of the linguistic componems of languages. with special emphasis on the English language, its origins. continued development. and use in speaking and writing. Categories of speech and methods of written communication are examined from the perspective of regional and social variation . Cultural, gender. and racial variations are discussed along with underlying perspectives and assumptions. Exercises include some basic linguistic anaiysis. COMM 390 Writing for Managers (3) (Formerly HUMN 390. Fulfills me general education require­ment in intensive upper-level writing.) Prerequisite: ENGL 101 or equivalent. A practicum in the kinds of writi. 6 ski lls that managers need for the workplace. Communication ski lls emphasized include planning information. developing reader­based prose. improving personal writing performance and guiding the writing of subordinates. and mastering such writing tasks as strategic plans and performance appraisals. Students may receive credit for only one of the following courses: COMM 390. HUMN 390. or MGST 161. COMM393 Technical Writing (3) (Formerly ENGL 393. Students for whom English is a second language should consider taking COMM 393X instead. Fulfills me general education requirement in intensive upper-level writing.) Prerequisite: ENGL 101 or equivalent. T he writing of technical papers and reports. Instruction focuses on building skills in critical minking. research. and documellt design . Assign­ments include composing a total of 6.000 words (approximately 25 pages) in various formars (e.g.• the oral presentation. the resume. correspondence. manuals. procedures. instructions, and different types of reports, including proposal, progress. analytic, and feasibility). Students may receive credit for only one of !:he following courses: COMM 393 or ENGL 393. COMM393X Technical Writing (3) (Formerly ENGL 393X. Enrollment restricted to students for whom English is a second language. Fulfills the general education requirement in intensive upper-level writing.) Prerequisite: ENGL 10lX or equivalent. The writing of technical papers and reports. Instruction focuses on building skills in critical thinking. research, and document design. Assignments include composing a (Otal of 6,000 words (approximately 25 pages) in various formats (e. g. , the oral presentation, the resume, correspondence. man uals. proce­dures, instructions. and different types of reports, including proposal, progress. analytic. and feasibility). Students may receive credit for only one of the following courses: COMM 393X or ENGL 393X. 76 CMIS 370 Data Communications (3) Prerequisire: C M IS 270 or equivalenr. Invesrigarion of rhe eHects of c lmunicarion rechnology on informarion s. 5tems. Major top ics include componenrs of communica­rion systems. arch itectures and prorocols of networks, security meaSllfes, regularory issues, and rhe designing of nerwork sysrems. Issues and applications in local area nerwork and communicarion services are covered. Studenrs may receive credir for only one of rhe following cOllfses: CM1S 370, C MSC 370, or IFSM 450. CMIS 405 Applying Advanced Features in Ada (3) Prerequisite: C MIS 305 or CMIS 401, or equivalenr. A praerical foundation in wriring programs rhar incorporares ad vanced features of Ada. Topics include generics, rasking, cxceprion handling, and represenralion specificarions. CMIS 415 Advanced UNIX. and C (3) Pr requisites: CM IS 240 (or CMIS 315) and CMIS 325; CM IS 270 recommended . An invesrigarion of rhe inreracrion berwee n rhe N IX operaring sysrem and rhe C programming langu. ge. The fearures of UNIX rhar support C, including lib rar ' and sysrem calls, UNIX utiliries, debuggers, graphics, and fi le strllcrure, are presemed . Programming projecrs in C thar implement UN IX command fearures are assigned. CMlS 420 Advanced Relational Databases (3) Prerequisite: CMIS 320 or equivalenr. A srudy of advanced logi aJ and physical design fearures :md rechniques of rela­rional databases appropriate ro rhe advanced end user, dara­base designer, r d (abase adminisrraror. Topics include objeer-r /aria nal concep rs, dara modeling, challenge areas, physical design in re la ion to performance, and relational algebra as a basis of oprimizer srraregies. Future m:nds, ad­vanced concurrency cOl1rrol mechanisms, and mainrenance issues such as schema restrucruring are addressed. Projecrs includ hands-on work rhat involves designing and imple­menring a small darabase, crearing rriggers, loading rhrough forms and mili ry. querying through interacrive and embedded SQL, restru ruri ng ·chema, and analyzing performance. CMIS 435 Computer Networking (3) Prerequisi te: C~',1!IS 370 or equivalent. An overview of commu­nicarions ropies such as signaling conventions, encoding schemes. a.nd error detectio n and correcrion. Emphasis is on rouring prorocols for messages within various kinds of net\vorks, as well as on methods that nerwork entiries use to learn rhe staws of the enrire network. Srudenrs may receive credit for only o n of the following cours s: CMIS 435 or CMSC 440. CMIS 445 Distributed Systems (3) Prerequisires: CMIS 270 and 325, or equivalent. An explora­rion of prorocols and merhods for allocaring ro more rhan one processor various parts of rhe work associared wirh a single task. Emphasis is on environmenrs such as array processing, parallel processing and mulriprocessor sysrems, and communicarion among cooperaring processes. Issues discussed include reliability, security, and prorecrion, as well as how rhese issues affecr rhe development of programs and sysrems. Projecrs include programming. Srudents may receive credir for only one of rhe following courses: CMIS 445 or CMSC 445. CMIS 455 Requirements Development (3) Prerequisire: CMIS 330. A srudy of conceprs and rechniques for planning and developing high-quality soft\vare producrs. Fundamentals ofspecificarion (including formal models and representarions, documents, and srandards) are examined. Merhods of specifying and developing requirements for gen­eraring software arc discussed. Projects using rhese rechniques are included. Srudents may receive credir only once under rhis course number. CMIS 460 Software Design and Development (3) Prerequisire: CMIS 330 or equivalenr. An in-deprh rrearment of rhe conceprs and rechniques for designing and developing software for large projecrs. Design srraregies, principles, merh­odologies, and paradigms arc discussed, as are evaluarion and representarion. Archirecrural models and idioms, develop­ment rooIs and environments, implementarion guidelines and documentarion, and organizarion of design and development funcrions are included. Issues of program qualit)r, program correctness, and sysrem integrarion are addressed. Projecr work incorporares principles and rechniques of software design and development. CMIS 465 Software Verification and Validation (3) Prerequisire: CMIS 330 or equivalent. A srudy of rools, meth­ods, and current practices used in assessing rhe quality and correctness of software. '[opics and issues examined include the roles of testing and formal verificarion, fundamentals and formal models of program verification, planning and docu­mentarion for quality assurance, merhods of performing rechnical reviews, strategies ofsysrem resting and integration planning, and principles and practices used in conducring resrs. 80 ENSC407 Integrated Environmental Management (3) Prerequisites: ENSC 307, HZMT 301. and TMGT 444. An overview of the fundamental elements of an integrated environmental management program, using specific examples of Superfund site remediation processes. Case studies are used to apply principles and concepts to environmental management issues. EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING The EXCEL Through Experiential Learning program yields UMUC credit for learning acquired ourside the classroom. • Courses in experiential learning (designated EXCL), as well as credit earned through the program, may' be applied toward • appropriate primary or secondary specializations; • supporting courses for appropriate primary or secondary specializa tions; • the general education requirement; and • electives. Information about this program is given on p. 5. EXCL 301 Learning Analysis and Planning (3) Prerequisite: Attendance at Prior Learning orientation and formal admission to the program. (Call 301-985-7755 for information.) Instruction in the preparation of a portfolio documenting college-level learning gained through noncollege experience. Focus is on defining goals, exploring the relationship of experiential learning to conventional learning. and documenting learning gained through experience. Faculty evaluators assess completed portfolios for a possible award of credit. Access to word processing equipment is important. FAMILY STUDIES Courses in family studies (desigllated FMST) nUl)' be applied toward • a secondary specialization in family studies; • supporting credit for appropriate primary or secondary specializations in the social or behavioral sciences (certain courses may support a primary or a secondary specializa­tion in criminology/criminal justice); and • electives. Courses in this discipline do not fulfill the general education requirement in the social and behavioral sciences . FMST 105 Individuals in Families (3) A study of the personal growth and development within the family context. Topics include self-awareness. gender image, life transitions. and interpersonal and family relations. Students may receive credit for only one of the following courses: FMCD 105 or FMST 105. FMST 341 Personal and Family Finance (3) A study of individual and family financial strategies with emphasis on flnancial planning, savings, investments, insurance, income tax, housing, and the use of credit. Strategies discussed include planning, analyzing, and controlling financial resources ro resolve personal and family financial problems and attain financial security. Students may receive credit for only one of the following courses: CNEC 410, FMCD 341, FMCD 441 . or fMST 341. FMST 431 Family Crises and Intervention (3) Prerequisite: PSYC 100. A presentation of theories and techniques for intervening in crises such as divorce, disability, substance abuse, financial problems, intrafamilial abus , and death. The goal is to improve families' strategies for coping with those circumstances. Students may receive credit for only one of the following courses: FMCD 431 or FMST 431. 98 FREN 311 French Conversation (3) (Fulfills the international perspective requirement.) Prerequi­site: Any 200-level course in French above FREN 203. Development of aural comprehension and oral exp ression through use of radio and television broadcasts. FREN 312 Introduction to French Culture: The French Press (3) (Fulfills the international perspective requirement.) Prerequisire: Any 200-level course in French above FREN 203. An analysis and discussion of articles from French (or Francophone) printed media reflecting a variety of sources and styles. GENERAL SCIENCE Courses in general science (designaged GNSC) are inrended ro provide scientific literacy for students nor specializing in a sCIence. Courses in general science may be applied toward • the general educatior, requirement in the biological and physical sciences; supporting credit for a primary or a secondary specializa­tion in microbiology (when appropriate); and • electives. Courses in this discipline may not be applied roward a primary or a secondary specialization. GNSC 100 Introduction to Physical Science (3) (For students not specializi ng in a science.) An introduction ro the basic principles of physics, chemistry, astro nomy, biology, geology. oceanography. and meteorology. Discllssion covers the development of scientific thinking, th e reia lion­ships among the various physical sciences, and the role of rhe physical sciences in inrerpreting the natura l world. GNSC 110 Oceanus: The Marine Environment (3) (For students not specializing in a science.) An introducrory study of the marine environment as a unique featlJre of this planer. Presentation includes theories of the leading North American oceanographers concerning forces that shaped the continents and oceans, as well as predicrions of the effects of pollution on life in the oceans. Topics include inrertidal zones. continenral margins, plate tecronics, islands, marine meteorol­ogy, ocean currenrs, wind waves and water dynamics, rides, plankron, nekron, rep riles and birds, mammals ofsea and land, polar and rropical seas, biological and mineral resources, and pollurion. GNSC 125 Universe: The Infinite Frontier (3) (For students not specializing in a science.) A comprehensive introduction to the science of astronomy. The origins of the solar system and of modern asrronomy are presented and examined. Topics include the Prolemaic and Copernican models of rhe solar system; the Doppler effect; the "big bang" theory; the planets wirhin the solar system; and the sun, the moon, and the stars. Supernovas. pulsars. quasars, black holes. and neutron stars are discussed. Consideration is given ro the possibility of life on other worlds. Students may receive credir for only one of the following courses: ASTR 100 or GNSC 12 GNSC 135 The Earth Revealed (3) (For students not specializing in a science.) A derailed overview of the geological forces that shape Earth and make it unique, along wirh an examination of the interre la­tion between its inhabitants and their physical environmenr. Topics include the beginnings of the solar system and the evolurion of Earth; major fearures of rhe sea floor; theory of plate tecronics; the evolurion of mountain belts and continents; earthquakes; the origins, classifications, and uses of minerals; volcanoes; processes of change in minerals and rocks; erosional characrerisrics of moving water; deserts; and glaciers. GNSC 140 The World of Chemistry (3) (For students not specializing in a science.) A humanistic. unified approach ro chemisrry rhat uses practical applications, computer graphics. illusrrations. and experiments ro illustrare prin ir les. facts. and rheories . Interviews wirh distinguished scientists arc used to present hisrorical foundations, recem developments. and p tential trends in chemisrry. Connections among physics. bio logy, genetics, geology, the origin of life, and envi ronmental issues are highlighted. GN SC 150 The Changing Physical World (3) An inrroducri on ro 20th-century physics for nonscientists. H ighlights include the d iscoveries and ideas of quanrum meory, solid-stare physics. relativity, asrrophysics, and cosmology as regarded againsr a changing hisrorical and philosophical background. Among rhe concepts considered are aspects of the ulrimate composition of marrer and enetgy, as well as clashes between schools of rhoughr borh in rhe past and o n curren r issues. 101 Passing: The GI'ade ofP The grade of P is confe rr d after are, cher has evaluared coursework under the normal procedure f, r letter grades and has submitted a stand a rd gr.lde (A. B, C, Or D). Then Student Scr ·ices converts th t srandard grade into the grade ofP A passing grade is recorJed 0 11 the perma nent record and confers c redit towar I grad u<lt i 11. However, courses graded P are not included in calcul.l ring grade-point averages . Satisfactory: The Gtade ofS The rade of S is equivale ur ro a grade of C or higher. This gr:tde is used ro deno t~ satisf: cco ry p rogress in a n experien­tial setting or pracricu m uch as EXCL .10 I. Although the grade of S confers credi t all d ap pea~ on rhe permanent r cord , courses graded S are not usc::d in d termining grade­poi nt ave rages. Failure: The GI'ade of F T he grade of F m ans a failure [ sat isfy the minimum requi rements of a c lrse. A rude nt assigned [he grade of F must register again ~ r the cour e, pay the applicable fees, repeat the caurS • a d e rn, passing grade in order ro re ive redit for [hat cuu rse. A grade of cannot be hanged. Ald ltlugh it carries no credit. it is included in caleu l. ring til g rade-point average . Incomp lne: The Mark of1 The mark of 1 (incomplete) is an exceptional mark given onl to students whose rk in a course has been satisfac­tory bue who f r reas ns beyond thei r control have been Bable to complete all t e r quir Illcnts of a course. The foil wing c rireria mu r b ~ me . o The st.udel t must hOI ,-Ompier I the major portion of rhe work in rhe urse. o T he work already -omple.>n::d mus r be of satisfactory qual ity. o T he mark f r must be requested befo re the end of rhe cour ' e. T he procedure ~ r a ~ arding me ma rk of I is as follows: o The srudenr mllst ask the r~ac hcr for a mark of l. (Teachers ca n nor a, ar t a mark of I o n [heir own iniria rive.) • The reacher decide wherher ro grant rhe request. he rtac h r c[s uare (n more rhan six 1ll0IHhs aher submitting the original gr: de) fo r co mplerion of rhe rernaini ng req ire e n rs of eh course. o The reacher and the student together agree on the remaini ng requirements of the course and me deadli ne for submirting the work. o The student is responsible for completing the work. • After the work is completed, the teacher submits a grade­change form to replace the mark of I on the student's record with a grade. • The mark of I cannot be removed by means of credit by examll1atlOn. • The mark of I cannot be replaced by a mark of \'(1 (ddlned below). • A mark of I not made up within six months becomes permanent unless a written r quest for an extension has been approved by rhe dean of Undergraduate Programs or his designee. Srudenrs who elect to repear an incomplere course musr regisrer again for rhe course, pay all applicable fees, and rep ar rhe course. For purposes of academic rerention, the course grade is counted as an F. The mark of I is nor used in determining grade-point averages. Withdrawal' nJtI Mark ofW Srudents may receive rhe mark of W either by completing a regisrration-change form in Student Services or by submirring a wrinen requesr approximately rwo weeks before the lasr scheduled class in a semester or term. Either procedure constitutes offi cial wirhdrawal. This mark appears on the permanenr record unless wirh­drawal is complered befo re a course.> begins. For purposes of academic retention, the mark ofW is cou nted as anempred hours. Ir is not used in determining grade-po int averages. Changes in Grade Teachers may change a grad previously assigned only by submitting a rad e Adjustmem Repon, along with a lener giving the reasons for change. Any change musr be made no later rhan six months afrer the original grade was awarded. G1'adi1lg Repeated Courses When a course is repeated, only the higher grade earned in rhe two attempts i incl uded in the calculation of rhe GPA. For putposes of a ademic retention, both attemprs are coullted. Both grades are entered on rhe permanent record, wirh a notation indicating that rhe course was repeated. Srudents cannot increase rhe total hours earned toward a degree by repearing a course for which a passing grade was conferred previously. To establish credir in a course previously failed or with­drawr, from, students must regisrer, pay the full tlli tion and fees, and repeat rhe entire course su cessfully. 168 Hill. Randolph L. Techllology and Management B.A., University of California, San Diego, 1983 M.P.P .. University of alifornia, Berkeley. 1986 J.D .. University of California. Berkeley, 1987 Hiller, Cheryl Educatio11: COl/me/ing and Personnel Services B.A., Univasity of Maryland, College Park, 1968 M.A., University of Maryland, College Park, 1988 Hockenberry, William E. Business and Mtmagemellf A.B. Gettysb urg College, 1961 M.A.. Colgate University, 1969 J.n .. American University, 197 1 D.Ed., Amtrican University, 1975 Ll..M., Geotgetown Un iversiry. 1977 Hoferek. Mary Computer alld Information :,cience B.A., Trenton State CollGge, 1965 M.A., University of Michigan , 1969 Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1978 Hoffman, Christina

    1990-1991- UMUC-Graduate Catalog

    No full text
    US;, UNIVERSIlY OF MARYLAND UNIVERSIlY COLLEGE THE GRADUATE SCHOOL CATALOG Selected photographs by Colette Echeverria. We are grate{ul {or the photographic assistance provided by the {ollowing: Baltimore International Culinary College Center {or Advanced Research in Biotechnology Larry Crouse, UMCP Photographic Services John Dolan, BSL Technology GE In{ormation Services -Rockville, MD Maryland Port Authority NASA -Goddard Space Flight Center National Institute o{ Standards and Technology Quad Group The Retired Officers Association TABLE OF CONTENTS MESSAGE FROM THE DEAN 1 ADMISSION INFORMATION 2 Application Instructions 2 Foreign & Foreign Educated Applicants 2 Regulations 2 Costs 2 Financial Aid 3 Academic Calendar 3 INTRODUCTION TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL 4 Student Profile 4 Graduate Degree Programs 4 MASTER OF GENERAL ADMINISTRATION 5 Overview 5 Requirements For Admission 5 Core Courses 6 Commercial Real Estate Track 7 Financial Management Track 8 General Management Track 9 Health Care Administration Track 10 Hotel and Restaurant Management Track 11 Human Resource Administration Track 12 Management Information Systems Track 13 Marketing Track 14 State and Local Government Track 15 Executive Master of General Administration 16 Senior Executive Master of General Administration 18 M.S. IN COMPUTER SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT 20 M.S. IN ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT 23 MASTER OF INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT 26 M.S. IN TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT 29 Core Courses 30 Biotechnology Management Track 31 Manufacturing Systems Management Track 32 Technology Innovation and Entrepreneurship Track 33 Technology Systems Management Track 34 Executive M.S. in Technology Management 35 M.S. IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT 37 RESEARCH AND COMMUNICATION The Center for the Study of Future Management 40 Graduate Advisory Panel 41 ACADEMIC REGULATIONS 42 GRADUATE FACULTY 45 Graduate Council 49 INSTRUCTION SITES 50 UNIVERSITY COLLEGE UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS University College Undergraduate Programs offers courses at statewide locations and in metropolitan Washington, D.C., leading to the Bachelor ofArts and Bachelor ofScience degrees in over 30 concentrations. Programs are offered through traditional course formats and independent formats (the Open Learning Program). Courses offered at locations other than College Park are scheduled for the convenience of adult students, who often work full-time and manage other responsibilities. Key locations are Shady Grove, Fort Meade, Andrews and Bolling Air Force Bases, the Pentagon, Annapolis Center, and St. Charles IWaldorf Center. Under­graduate Programs is supported by a full range ofstudent services, including "walk-in" advisement and registration and tutoring services in writing, mathematics, and other disciplines. For further information, please call (301) 985­7700. UNIVERSITY ADMINISTRATION BOARD OF REGENTS Mr. George V. McGowan, Chairperson Dr. Albert N. Whiting, Secretary Mrs. Ilona M. Hogan, Treasurer Ms. Constance M. Unseld, Assistant Secretary Mr. Roger Blunt, Assistant Treasurer The Honorable Wayne A. Cawley, Jr., Ex Officio Ms. Margaret Alton Mr. Richard O. Berndt Mr. Benjamin L. Brown Mr. Earle Palmer Brown Mr. Charles W. Cole, Jr. Mr. Frank A Gunther, Jr. Ms. Ann Hull Mr. Henry R. Lord Mr. Rodney Lydell Tyson Mr. John W. T. Webb OFFICERS OF THE UNIVERSITY SYSTEM James A. (Dolph) Norton, Interim Chancellor Presidents James E. Lyons, Bowie State University Calvin W. Burnett, Coppin State College Herb P. Reinhard, Frostburg State University Thomas E. Bellavance, Salisbury State College Hoke L. Smith, Towson State University H. Mebane Turner, University ofBaltimore William J. Kinnard, Jr. (Acting), University of Maryland at Baltimore Michael K. Hooker, University ofMaryland Baltimore County William E. Kirwan, University ofMaryland College Park William P. Hytche, University ofMaryland Eastern Shore T. Benjamin Massey, University ofMaryland University College Directors of the Major Components Thomas C. Malone (Acting), Center for Environmental and Estuarine Studies Craig S. Oliver, Cooperative Extension Service Robert A. Kennedy, Agricultural Experiment Station Rita R. Colwell, Maryland Biotechnology Institute UNIVERSITY COLLEGE ADMINISTRATION T. Benjamin Massey, President Vida J. Bandis, Vice President, Administration Robert G. Horn, Vice President David C. Montgomery, Vice President, Academic Affairs Julie E. Porosky, Vice President, Statewide Programs Joseph ~r. Arden, Director, European Division Julian S. Jones, Director, Asian Division Milton A. Grodsky, Dean, Graduate Studies and Research Paul H. Hamlin, Dean, Undergraduate Programs UNIVERSITY POLICY STATEMENTS The provisions of this publication are not to be regarded as an irrevocable contract between the student and the Univer­sity of Maryland University College. From time to time, changes are made in the general regulations and in the academic requirements. There are established procedures for making changes, procedures that protect the institu­tion's integrity and the individual student's interests and welfare. A curriculum or graduation requirement, when altered, is not made retroactive unless the alteration is to the student's advantage and can be accommodated within the span ofyears normally required for graduation. Accreditation The University of Maryland University College is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education ofthe Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools Nondiscrimination The University of Maryland University College welcomes applications from prospective students and employees without regard to race, age, sex, physical or mental handi­cap, religion, national origin, or political affiliation. The Graduate School University of Maryland University College University Boulevard at Adelphi Road College Park, MD 20742-1614 Telephone: (301) 985-7155 or 1-800-888-UMUC, toll free 1 MESSAGE FROM THE DEAN The Graduate School of the University of Maryland University College is dedicated to providing high-quality programs for mid­career individuals who want to further develop their professional management and technical abilities. Our six graduate degree programs and three executive degree programs are designed specifically to combine management theories and concepts with their practical application in various specialized areas and technical disciplines. Our faculty have extensive professional management experience, many in a technical environment, and are selected on the basis of their managerial expertise, teaching ability, and advanced education. We believe that the Graduate School offers an excellent educational opportunity in which fully employed individuals can pursue a management degree. The combina­tion of a rigorous curriculum, experienced professional faculty and an applied and practical approach results in a relevant, high-quality program. Milton A. Grodsky Dean, Graduate Studies and Research 2 ADMISSIONS INFORMATION APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS Applications for graduate programs are accepted throughout the year. Students may enter at the beginning of the Fall, the Spring or the Summer term (except for the Senior Executive and Executive Master programs). The pUll-out application is enclosed in the center of this catalog. 1. All items on the application form must be completed. The data must be typed or printed legibly. 2. A nonrefundable application fee of $25, made payable to University of Maryland University College must accompany each application. 3. The student must submit a request to the registrar's office of each college or university previosly attended to send a complete official transcript of the students records (this includes students who attended another institution in the University of Maryland System). These transcripts must be sent to the following address: The Graduate School University of MarylandUniversity College Office of Student Services, Room 390 University Boulevard at Adelphi Road College Park, Maryland 20742-1614 4. Each application for degree programs and professional development programs must include a completed personal statement indicating work experience and current employment, and your goals and aspirations that may be enhanced by participation in the program. In their personal statements, students pursuing the M.S. in Computer Systems Management or the M.S. in Telecommunications Management must also describe their knowledge of and experience with computers. 5. After submitting an application, a student may enroll in one graduate course before University College has received all official college transcripts. However, a final admission decision cannot be made until those items have been received at University College. Until that decision, students are considered to have a status of "decision pending." 6. All applications and related documents must be mailed to the address indicated in item 3 (above). FOREIGN AND FOREIGN-EDUCATED APPLICANTS Foreign students residing in the United States on student visas (F-1) are not permitted to enroll in University College. Eligible foreign students must bring their visas to all registrations. Aliens (including those on permanent immi­grant visas) who cannot speak and read English fluently may not register for either credit or audit. Foreign Students whose native language is not English must demonstrate proficiency in the English language by taking the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). All questions concerning foreign students should be ad­dressed to the Foreign Students Advisor at (301) 985-7155. REGULATIONS 1. A student may be admitted to only one institution in the University of Maryland System at any time. Students may be admitted as either graduates or undergraduates, but no one may hold both classifications at one time. A student's most recent application for admission invali­dates any previous admission. 2. A student may be admitted to only one graduate program at any time. Application for admission to a second graduate program is not permitted until notifica­tion of resignation has been presented to the first program. A student admitted to any graduate program in the University of Maryland System should so inform University College. 3. A student will retain active status for one year even without being registered in the program. Students may withdraw at any time by writing to the Office of Student Services. TUITION AND FEES NOTE: The following information applies to all graduate programs except the programs for the Executive Master of General Administration, the Senior Executive Master of General Administration, and the Executive M.S. in Technol­ogy Management. The costs ofthese three programs are pre­sented on their respective pages. 1. Application A nonrefundable fee of $25 is due when a student applies for admission to the Graduate School. 2. Tuition (per semester hour) Graduate student -Resident of Maryland $190 Graduate student -Nonresident of Maryland $260 Registration fee (per class) $5 The above fees were in effect at the time this catalog was pub­lished; they are subject to change. Students should consult the current Schedule ofClasses for applicable charges. Other fees applicable to University College students are listed in the Schedule of Classes. Graduate students are required to pay graduate tuition for all courses in which they an, enrolled. Registration in any undergraduate course at University College, including prerequisites, requires payment of graduate tuition and fees. 3 ADMISSIONS INFORMATION FINANCIAL AID Financial Aid Opportunities Graduate students may be eligible for several kinds offinan­cial aid, including grants, loans, and scholarships. Detailed information is available from the Financial Aid Service Office of University College at (301) 985-7231. Veterans' Benefits Graduate students who are eligible for Veterans Admini­stration Educational Benefits must contact Veteran and Disabled Student Services when registered at University College. The amount ofV.A. benefits students receive varies with each educational assistance program. For all programs, enrollment status or training time is determined by using the following tables. Table for Computing Graduate Units 000-399 2 units per credit 400-499 4 units per credit 500-599 5 units per credit 600-898 6 units per credit 799 (research) 12 units per credit 899 (research) 18 units per credit Graduate students will not be certified for any course below the 400 level unless (1) it is required by their department, and (2) a letter so stating is approved by the Graduate School and submitted to the Veteran and Disabled Student Services Office at registration. Audited courses cannot be counted toward credit for graduate or undergraduate students. Charges for audit and for credit courses are the same. Graduate students are expected to follow all V.A. regula­tions and procedures while attending University College. For details, students may refer to Veterans Benefits in the Undergraduate Academic Information section of the general University College Catalog. For further information, veterans may contact Veteran and Disabled Student Services at (301) 985-7258. Conversion Table for Veterans Administration Benefits Credits for Graduate Status Undergraduate Units 12 or more 48 Full-time 9-11 36 3/4-time 6-8 24 l/2-time 5 or fewer 12 l/4-time ACADEMIC CALENDAR The Graduate School conducts many courses and programs each term, scheduling them to meet at times and places convenient to students. Because of the variety the Graduate School offers, however, conflicts may develop that affect the dates. Therefore the following dates are approximate. Actual times, dates, and locations may be found in the Schedule ofClasses, which is published for each Fall, Spring, and Summer term. A Schedule of Classes for Statewide Programs is available by writing to the following: Office of Publications University of Maryland University College University Boulevard at Adelphi Road College Park, MD 20742-1672 The Schedule ofClasses may also be requested by telephon­ing (301) 985-7800. SUMMER 1990 Schedule ofClasses available Mail-in registration deadline Telephone registration Off-campus registration Walk-in registration (College Park) Classes begin Late registration Classes end FALL 1990 Schedule ofClasses available Mail-in registration deadline Telephone registration Off-campus registration Walk-in registration (College Park) Classes begin Late registration Classes end SPRING 1991 Schedule ofClasses available Mail-in registration deadline Telephone registration Off-campus registration Walk-in registration (College Park) Classes begin Late registration Classes end Commencement April May 19 May 14-18, 21-23 May 16-24 (varies by site) May 30 June 4 June 4-8 July 26 July August 11 August 13-17 August 14-23 (varies by site) August 28-30 September 4 September 4-5 December 23 November December 15 January 3-4, 7-11 January 4-24 (varies by site) January 14-16 January 22 January 22-23 May 13 May 18 4 INTRODUCTION TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL THE GRADUATE SCHOOL UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND UNIVERSITY COLLEGE The Graduate School of the University of Maryland Univer­sity College has sustained remarkable growth since its inception in 1978. Today, over 3,500 students are actively pursuing their graduate degrees. University College extends the resources of the University of Maryland System to adult, part-time students throughout the State of Maryland and the District of Columbia. Widely recognized for excellence in continuing education, for more than 40 years University College has provided a full range of educational opportuni­ties to adult students at times and locations that accommo­date their career and family commitments. The Graduate School has a decade of experience in educating and training managers from business, industry, and govern­ment. Its graduate degree programs were developed specifi­cally for the fully-employed professional to combine manage­ment concepts, theories, and approaches with their practical applications in various specialized areas and technical disci­plines. Each of the programs addresses the challenges man­agers face in today's globally competitive and technologically oriented environments. Faculty, with extensive professional management experience incorporate their practical expertise into their teaching. The Graduate School selects these individuals for their current involvement in the topics covered in courses, their teaching ability, and their advanced education. Courses generally meet once a week in the evening, at many locations throughout Maryland and in Washington, D.C. STUDENT PROFILE The average age of the student body is about 35. Forty-four percent of the students are female; about 60 percent are employed in the private sector of the economy. These students are generally motivated to pursue graduate study for two reasons. Some are already employed as managers and want to develop their management skills further by acquiring knowledge of management research in a systematic way. Others are currently employed in a specific technical capacity and want to direct their careers onto a management track. In either case, students of University College share the perspective that they have in some sense exhausted the equity in their undergraduate degrees and now need to reinvest in themselves and in their futures by pursuing a graduate degree. GRADUATE DEGREE PROGRAMS The Graduate School of the University of Maryland Univer­sity College offers six graduate degree programs: Master of General Administration {with optional tracks in} • Commercial Real Estate • Financial Management • General Management • Health Care Administration • Hotel and Restaurant Management • Human Resource Administration • Management Information Systems • Marketing • State and Local Government • Executive Master of General Administration • Senior Executive Master of General Administration Master of Science in Computer Systems Management Master of Science in Engineering Management Master of International Management Master of Science in Technology Management (with optional tracks in) • Biotechnology Management • Manufacturing Systems Management • Technology Innovation and Entrepreneurship • Technology Systems Management • Executive M.S. in Technology Management MasterofScience in TelecommunicationsManagement 5 MASTER OF GENERAL ADMINISTRATION OVERVIEW The Master ofGeneral Administration focuses on theories and skills of managing people in both public-and private-sector organizations. The program is designed for professionals who find that as they assume increasing responsibility within their organization, the basis for success generally shifts from techno­logical expertise to having the knowledge and skills necessary to manage human resources. Important topics covered in re­quired courses include: methods and conduct oforganizational assessments, the organization/environment relationship, stra­tegic planning, organizational communication, budgeting and resource allocation, leadership, and organizational decision­making. Throughout the curriculum, major emphasis is on the effects of rapid technological change on organizations and ad­ministrative processes and the consequent ethical and moral responsibilities of managers to society at large. Classes are generally held one evening a weekfor three hours on a semester basis, or on weekends. Teaching methods include lectures, dis­cussions, students' presentations, and case studies. Degree Program In each segmentofthe degree program, theoryandconcepts are presented to provide an opportunity for the student to develop and evaluate administrative skills. In each course, faculty combine theoretical concepts with the practical application of usable skills. The degree program consists ofthree segments: Required Core Courses: Seven (3-credit) courses consider methodologies related to the study of organizations, forecast­ing models and long-range planning, organizational commu­nication, and the responsibilities of the manager in a techno­logical society. Trends in society, business, and organiza­tional structure are examined. Students investigate the nature of organizations, budgeting and resource allocation, and leadership. The capstone course of the program explores issues in organizational decision-making. Track Courses: Four (3-credit> courses provide an opportu­nity for students to concentrate on skills and knowledge specific to their areas of administrative interest. In the General Management track, two courses are required, while two others may be chosen from any other approved graduate courses offered by University College. The track each student selects is identified on the transcript at graduation. Management Project: This (3-credit) segment provides prac­tical experience in selected management topics under the direction of a member ofthe University College faculty and an on-site supervisor. The management project is usually con­ducted at the student's place of employment; or the student may locate another appropriate site in some organization. Certificate Program A certificate program is available for students who are not interested in the degree program but who desire a sequence of graduate courses leading to a certificate in general ad­ministration. The program is composed of 21 semester hours of coursework; the requirement is satisfied by the core courses listed on page 6. REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION A student may be admitted in one of two classifications: degree or provisional status. Another classification, decision pending, allows students to be admitted at registration for one semester only while completing the formal admission process. The admission requirements for each classification are as follows. Degree Status • A baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited uni­versity or college • An ov

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