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    Phase properties of hypergeometric states and negative hypergeometric states

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    We show that the three quantum states (P$\acute{o}$lya states, the generalized non-classical states related to Hahn polynomials and negative hypergeometric states) introduced recently as intermediates states which interpolate between the binomial states and negative binomial states are essentially identical. By using the Hermitial-phase-operator formalism, the phase properties of the hypergeometric states and negative hypergeometric states are studied in detail. We find that the number of peaks of phase probability distribution is one for the hypergeometric states and $M$ for the negative hypergeometric states.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figure

    Calculation of the Deflection of Light Ray near the Sun with Quantum-corrected Newton's Gravitation Law

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    The deflection of light ray passing near the Sun is calculated with quantum-corrected Newton's gravitation law. The satisfactory result suggests that there may exist other theoretical possibilities besides the theory of relativity.Comment: tciLatex, 5 pages. no figur

    Quantum algorithms which accept hot qubit inputs

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    Realistic physical implementations of quantum computers can entail tradeoffs which depart from the ideal model of quantum computation. Although these tradeoffs have allowed successful demonstration of certain quantum algorithms, a crucial question is whether they fundamentally limit the computational capacity of such machines. We study the limitations of a quantum computation model in which only ensemble averages of measurement observables are accessible. Furthermore, we stipulate that input qubits may only be prepared in highly random, ``hot'' mixed states. In general, these limitations are believed to dramatically detract from the computational power of the system. However, we construct a class of algorithms for this limited model, which, surprisingly, are polynomially equivalent to the ideal case. This class includes the well known Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm.Comment: 4 pages, revtex, submitted June 29, 199

    Discrete Q- and P-symbols for spin s

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    Non-orthogonal bases of projectors on coherent states are introduced to expand hermitean operators acting on the Hilbert space of a spin s. It is shown that the expectation values of a hermitean operator A in a family of (2s+1)(2s+1) spin-coherent states determine the operator unambiguously. In other words, knowing the Q-symbol of A at (2s+1)(2s+1) points on the unit sphere is already sufficient in order to recover the operator. This provides a straightforward method to reconstruct the mixed state of a spin since its density matrix is explicitly parametrized in terms of expectation values. Furthermore, a discrete P-symbol emerges naturally which is related to a basis dual to the original one.Comment: 6 pages, Latex2

    Single-particle Bell-type Inequality

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    It is generally believed that Bell's inequality holds for the case of entangled states, including two correlated particles or special states of a single particle. Here, we derive a single-particle Bell's inequality for two correlated spin states at two successive times, appealing to the statistical independence condition in an ideal experiment, for a locally causal hidden variables theory. We show that regardless of the locality assumption, the inequality can be violated by some quantum predictions.Comment: 14 pages, 1 figure, Latex file, To appear in Annales de la Fondation Louis de Brogli

    Secure Classical Bit Commitment using Fixed Capacity Communication Channels

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    If mutually mistrustful parties A and B control two or more appropriately located sites, special relativity can be used to guarantee that a pair of messages exchanged by A and B are independent. In earlier work, we used this fact to define a relativistic bit commitment protocol, RBC1, in which security is maintained by exchanging a sequence of messages whose transmission rate increases exponentially in time. We define here a new relativistic protocol, RBC2, which requires only a constant transmission rate and could be practically implemented. We prove that RBC2 allows a bit commitment to be indefinitely maintained with unconditional security against all classical attacks. We examine its security against quantum attacks, and show that it is immune from the class of attacks shown by Mayers and Lo-Chau to render non-relativistic quantum bit commitment protocols insecure.Comment: Proofs of classical security simplified and extended. Precise estimates for practical implementation, showing near perfect security attainable for separations of 10 km. New definitions of successful unveiling and of effective commitment in a redundant bit commitment scheme. New discussion of the deniability of relativistic bit commitments and (a point due to Mueller-Quade and Unruh) their retractability. 32 pages, revtex preprint format. Erratum on p329 of published version correcte

    Aharonov-Bohm Effect and Coordinate Transformations

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    Resorting to a Gedankenexperiment which is very similar to the famous Aharonov-Bohm proposal it will be shown that, in the case of a Minkowskian spacetime, we may use a nonrelativistic quantum particle and a noninertial coordinate system and obtain geometric information of regions that are, to this particle, forbidden. This shows that the outcome of a nonrelativistic quantum process is determined not only by the features of geometry at those points at which the process takes place, but also by geometric parameters of regions in which the quantum system can not enter. From this fact we could claim that geometry at the quantum level plays a non-local role. Indeed, the measurement outputs of some nonrelativistic quantum experiments are determined not only by the geometry of the region in which the experiment takes place, but also by the geometric properties of spacetime volumes which are, in some way, forbidden in the experiment.Comment: 11 pages, 1 figure, accepted in Mod. Phys. Letts.

    Semiclassical interferences and catastrophes in the ionization of Rydberg atoms by half-cycle pulses

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    A multi-dimensional semiclassical description of excitation of a Rydberg electron by half-cycle pulses is developed and applied to the study of energy- and angle-resolved ionization spectra. Characteristic novel phenomena observable in these spectra such as interference oscillations and semiclassical glory and rainbow scattering are discussed and related to the underlying classical dynamics of the Rydberg electron. Modifications to the predictions of the impulse approximation are examined that arise due to finite pulse durations

    Probabilistic exact cloning and probabilistic no-signalling

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    We show that non-local resources cannot be used for probabilistic signalling even if one can produce exact clones with the help of a probabilistic quantum cloning machine (PQCM). We show that PQCM cannot help to distinguish two statistical mixtures at a remote location. Thus quantum theory rules out the possibility of sending superluminal signals not only deterministically but also probabilistically. We give a bound on the success probability of producing multiple clones in an entangled system.Comment: Latex file, 6 pages, minor correction

    A simple proof of the converse of Hardy's theorem

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    In this paper we provide a simple proof of the fact that for a system of two spin-1/2 particles, and for a choice of observables, there is a unique state which shows Hardy-type nonlocality. Moreover, an explicit expression for the probability that an ensemble of particle pairs prepared in such a state exhibits a Hardy-type nonlocality contradiction is given in terms of two independent parameters related to the observables involved. Incidentally, a wrong statement expressed in Mermin's proof of the converse [N.D. Mermin, Am. J. Phys. 62, 880 (1994)] is pointed out.Comment: LaTeX, 16 pages + 2 eps figure
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