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    3745 research outputs found

    Politics and eminent domain: Evidence from the 1879 California Constitution

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    This paper explores the politics of eminent domain, using a specific historical episode: the enactment of the new California constitution in 1879. It presents evidence that the failure of a constitutional provision that would have codified eminent domain powers for water development resulted from a complex interchange of economic interests among farmers, miners, and urban residents. This evidence was manifested in delegate behavior on the floor of the constitutional convention in 1878, including various roll-call votes, which are subjected to an econometric analysis. The results have implications for the interpretation of legislative eminent domain decisions, and the degree to which economic development processes are shaped by the institutional environment in which they occur

    Living a Lie: Theory and Evidence on Public Preference Falsification

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    We propose a model of how public behavior changes in response to the evolution of privately held preferences. Our aim is to rationalize the tendency for individuals who hold minority viewpoints to falsely report their preferences by taking actions favored by the majority. We do this using a game involving a tension between honest expression of one’s true preferences and a desire to conform to the behavior of others. In an experimental test of our model, we find confirmatory support for the model’s main predictions, that even after a majority of the population shares what was previously an unpopular minority opinion, a lack of mutual awareness among members of the new majority can allow continued public support for the old status quo, and that the onset and speed of transitions to new, majority-held opinions depend on the relative difference in rewards from conformity versus truthful expressio

    Beating the spin-down limit on gravitational wave emission from the Crab pulsar

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    We present direct upper limits on gravitational wave emission from the Crab pulsar using data from the first nine months of the fifth science run of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). These limits are based on two searches. In the first we assume that the gravitational wave emission follows the observed radio timing, giving an upper limit on gravitational wave emission that beats indirect limits inferred from the spin-down and braking index of the pulsar and the energetics of the nebula. In the second we allow for a small mismatch between the gravitational and radio signal frequencies and interpret our results in the context of two possible gravitational wave emission mechanism

    Covid Archive Term Assignment

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    Community and Ecosystem-level Changes in a Species-rich Tallgrass Prairie Restoration

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    Changes in the plant community and ecosystem properties that follow the conversion of agriculture to restored tallgrass prairies are poorly understood. Beginning in 1995, we established a species-rich, restored prairie chronosequence where -3 ha of agricultural land have been converted to tallgrass prairie each year. Our goals were to examine differences in ecosystem properties between these restored prairies and adjacent agricultural fields and to determine changes in, and potential interactions between, the plant community and ecosystem properties that occur over time in the restored prairies. During the summers of 2000-2002, we examined species cover, soil C and N, potential net C and N mineralization, litter mass, soil texture, and bulk density across the 6- to 8-year-old prairie chronosequence and adjacent agricultural fields in southern Minnesota. We also established experimentally fertilized, watered, and control plots in the prairie chronosequence to examine the degree of nitrogen limitation on aboveground and belowground net primary production (ANPP and BNPP). Large shifts in functional diversity occurred within three growing seasons. First-year prairies were dominated by annuals and biennials. By the second growing season, perennial native composites had become dominant, followed by a significant shift to warm-season C4 grasses in prairies ?3 yr old. Ecosystem properties that changed with the rise of C4 grasses included increased BNPP, litter mass, and C mineralization rates and decreased N mineralization rates. ANPP increased significantly with N fertilization but did not vary between young and old prairies with dramatically different plant community composition. Total soil C and N were not significantly different between prairie and agricultural soils in the depths examined (0-10, 10-20, 20-35, 35-50, 50-65 cm). We compared the results from our species-rich prairie restoration to published data on ecosystem function in other restored grasslands, such as Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and old-field successional sites. Results suggest that rapid changes in functional diversity can have large impacts on ecosystem-level properties, causing community- and system-level dynamics in species-rich prairie restorations to converge with those from low-diversity managed grasslands

    The Silent Treatment: The Consequences of Synonymous Codon Selection In Exonic Binding Sites

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    Offshoring, Productivity, and Labor Income Risk

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    This paper uses panel data from the US to study the impact of globalization on the mean and variance of individual wages at the industry level. Globalization is measured in several ways; import penetration and export intensity, which capture international exposure in goods markets, and offshoring intensity, which captures exposure in factor markets. Preliminary results show that globalization increases industry-level multifactor productivity, which translates to higher wages, and but the impact on wage volatility depends on the type of exposure to international markets: import penetration raises wage volatility, while offshoring intensity reduces it. This suggests that import competition generates a trade-off between higher wages and higher wage volatility, with ambiguous welfare effects on workers, while offshoring makes workers unambiguously better off by raising wages and reducing unobservable wage risk

    Quantity Versus Quality: Experimenting with the Margins for Social Information

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    People share their experiences of goods and services online, through reviews, ratings and endorsements on social networks, potentially generating welfare-improving information that can help subsequent consumers make better, more informed decisions. While the economics literature has focused on questions of alignment and the intensive quality of provided information, another tension is extensive: in the absence of an incentive, many might choose not to provide information at all. We study three different incentives that encourage information transmission on the extensive margin, examining the tradeoffs between quality and quantity of information. Our findings indicate substantial efficiency gains can be made relative to no incentives, even when the incentives damage the preference alignment between those sending and receiving information. In particular, our results point to a partially aligned incentive (similar to a referral or sales commission) as robustly encouraging the provision of information while not producing substantial reductions in quality

    Stability of Single Particle Tracers for Differentiating Between Heavy- and Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions

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    To determine the size and chemical composition of particles derived from on-road vehicle emissions, individual particles were sampledcontinuously with an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) at the Caldecott Tunnel in Northern California. In this tunnel, traffic is segregated, such that in theory only light duty vehicle emissions or a mix of heavy- (HDV) and light-duty vehicle (LDV) emissions can be sampled separately. Two studies were carried out, one in November 1997 anda secondin July 2000, time periods with average ambient temperatures of 10–15 and 26–32 1C, respectively, with the instrument operating at ambient outdoor temperatures. Analysis of the chemical composition of the particles sampled in these studies shows that sampling conditions can strongly impact the determination of suitable markers for identifying particles emitted from different vehicle types during ambient studies

    Optimal Scheduling in a Queue with Differentiated Impatient Users

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    We consider a M/M/1 queue in which the average reward for servicing a job is an exponentially decaying function of the job’s sojourn time. The maximum reward and mean service times of a job are i.i.d. and chosen from arbitrary distributions. The scheduler is assumed to know the maximum reward, service rate, and age of each job. We prove that the scheduling policy that maximizes average reward serves the customer with the highest product of potential reward and service rate


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