CREA Journals (Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria)
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    596 research outputs found

    Nitrogen scheduling in maize in relation to tillage interventions and planting methods in Indian Punjab

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    Climate change and faster depletion of natural resources highlighted the importance of conservation agriculture. To study the effect of different tillage interventions and planting methods on productivity, soil properties and profitability of maize and to optimize the time of nitrogen application in maize under different tillage and planting methods, a field experiment was conducted during kharif 2017 and 2018 in split plot design with four combinations of tillage systems and planting methods [conventional tillage + flat sowing (T1), conventional tillage + bed sowing (T2), zero tillage + flat sowing (T3), zero tillage + bed sowing (T4)] in main plots and four schedules of nitrogen application including recommended (1/3 N as basal, 1/3 N at knee high stage and 1/3 N at flowering stage) (N1), 1/2 N as basal and 1/2 N at knee high stage (N2), 1/2 N as basal, 1/4 N at knee high stage and 1/4 N at waist high stage (N3) and 1/3 N as basal, 1/3 N at knee high stage and 1/3 N at waist high stage (N4) in sub-plots with three replications. Similar grain yield was obtained with different tillage and planting methods as well as with different time of N application treatments. The bed sowing helped in achieving 33.4% higher water productivity over flat sowing. The net returns were higher by Rs 5382 ha-1 under zero-till flat sowing than conventional-till flat sowing. So, advanced time of N application along with permanent bed planting can be adopted profitably for improved productivity

    Volume Equations for Abies borisii-regis Mattf. and Fagus sylvatica L. in central Greece

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    In the mixed stands of Fagus sylvatica - Abies borisii-regis in Aspropotamos (central Greece), 90 firtrees and 87 beech trees were randomly selected. Breast height diameter, total tree height and formfactor were measured to the sampled trees, while 14 single-entry and 18 double-entry volumemodels were fitted to data. No double-entry model is selected for either species. The selected singleentrymodels for the estimation of the A. borisii-regis and F. sylvatica volume fit very well (R2>0.8),while the comparison of the two volume estimation curves reveals that fir has a larger volume thanbeech, when their diameter is the same. Fir has a mean form factor of 0.331, while beech has a meanform factor of 0.315. The observed form factor differences and different patterns in form factorsbetween the two species can be the result of the differences in their growth (form and ecology)

    The effect of salinity on evapotranspiration, some growth parameters and ion uptake of sweet sorghum

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    This study aimed to determine the effect of different irrigation water salinity levels on two different sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) variety (Erdurmuş and Uzun) growth, evapotranspiration, some growth parameters, and ion uptake in leaves and roots. Six different saline irrigation water levels (S0=0.5 (control), S1= 1.0, S2: 2.0, S4=4.0, S8= 8.0, and S16=16.0 ds m-1) were obtained by mixing the NaCl and CaCl2 salt species into the tap water source. Plants were harvested before the phase of florescence. Increasing salinity level first increased and then decreased all growth parameters (Stem length, root length, fresh stem weight, fresh root weight, dry stem weight, and dry root weight). The increased salinity level after S2 treatment resulted in decreased water use efficiency. The salinity level affected the uptake of all ions in the root (except the Kion) and leaf, and as the salinity level increased, the amount of N, P, Mn, Znand Na in the leaf increased significantly, while the amount of K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu decreased

    Repeated mapped tree inventory in an oak-hornbeam planted forest in Po Valley (Foresta Carpaneta, Italy)

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    Stand structure and tree spatial patterns are key elements to understand natural dynamics and competition processes in forest ecosystems. We performed repeated, mapped tree inventory measures (x, y, height, diameter, vitality, etc.) to allow analysis of the spatial and temporal structure and diversity in 1 ha oak-hornbeam planted forest with pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.), established in 2003 also for the conservation of a variety of oak genotypes. Two inventories were carried out in 2009 and 2019. The use of repeated and mapped tree measures allows to investigate the changes in spatial pattern processes through time in this forest

    Dominant height growth modeling of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) in Beni Imloul forest, northern Algeria

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    To predict the quality site-index for stands of the Aleppo pine forest of Beni Imloul (Algeria), six algebraic and generalized algebraic difference equations (ADA/GADA) derived from the three base functions of Hossfeld, Bertalanffy-Richards and Lundqvist-Korf were adjusted and compared using cross-sections collected from 51 cut trees based on the stem-analysis method. The Lundqvist-Korf model with the GADA formulation produced a high level of performance and was selected and applied for the site quality identification of 167 temporary sample plots. This parameter, ranging between 9.13 and 17.77 m with an average of 13.99 m, allowed identifying four quality classes with a 2 m step between each class. The efficiency of the selected model, as productivity estimation-key, was verified by confronting the observed and estimated volumes. This key was justified for 77% of the sampled plots, which maintained the same productivity ranking or slightly shift towards one close class, both in terms of volume and dominant height. Not justified for extreme densities, the developed growth model can cautiously be used as a forest management tool in stands with optimal densities

    Ten-years dataset of poplar inventory in northern Italy

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    The data refer to several poplar plantations located in the plains of northern Italy. The information was collected during the vegetative rest of each year from 1987 to 1996. Dendrometric data were recorded, such as the diameter at breast height, the diameter at five meters height and the planting density, as well as damage caused by biotic and abiotic adversities using a three-level intensity scale. All data is raw, with only total volume and the volume of the first log (up to 5 meters height) calculated using dendrometric equations based on tree diameter and height. The availability of a continuous inventory with annual measurements for 10 years on the same trees in the permanent sample plots has allowed the creation of a particularly important database for the study of growth models and the influence of biotic and abiotic adversities on wood production. This dataset could be used to perform further investigations, such as CO2 sequestration, to assess the environmental sustainability of the poplar plantations. Furthermore, thanks to this database, it is possible to identify which areas of the northern Italian plains are more suitable for poplar cultivation based on wood biomass production, or to evaluate the impact of pests and diseases with respect to clone and land characteristics

    Differential intensity of rehabilitation silviculture in mismanaged high-graded forest

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    There are an estimated two billion hectares of degraded forest worldwide. A high-graded forest is one from which the highest-quality individuals of commercial tree species have been selectively harvested. Successive high-grading results in degradation. Without proper management, these forests are unlikely to recover in the short term and will be unable to fulfil their potential capacity to provide goods and services to society. Human-led rehabilitation is required to restart essential processes such as regeneration. This concept note provides criteria for determining levels of degradation in high-graded old forests, citing implications for rehabilitation silviculture and proposing general strategies for their recovery

    Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) bioclimatic suitability in Central Italy: future potential scenarios under climate change

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    The ecological and economic relevance of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) has long been related to its wide geographical distribution and multipurpose products potential. In Central Italy and especially in Latium, sweet chestnut finds optimal environmental conditions for growth, supported by the application of traditional silvicultural practices. Thus, its distribution has been radically modified and controlled by man in order to manage it in profitable and diversified ways (e.g., by coppices or orchards) to produce a wide range of ecosystem services, marketable (wood, fruits) and not marketable (landscape, water regulation, etc.) products. Over the years, due to climate change, some productivity changes have been observed and new challenges are expected to manage and cultivate this species. Based on this background, this work aims at investigating the possible impacts of climate change on sweet chestnut in Central Italy in medium (2041-2060) and long term (2081-2100). Adopting a standard protocol for reporting species distribution model (ODMAP - Overview, Data, Model, Assessment, Prediction), four Earth System Models have been combined into two Shared Socio-economic Paths and two Time Horizons, to produce potential chestnut bioclimatic suitability maps. The outlined scenarios represent valuable information for future chestnut policy and management for defining specific strategies, considering the adaptive capacity of the species in terms of resilience from pathogenic attacks and response to innovative silvicultural treatments

    Mapping Regions of Provenance for Italy

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    In the follow-up of 1999/105/CE Directive on national level, the new map of regions of provenance for forest reproductive materials of Italy is adopted as reference for the national register of forest basic materials. The new map was outlined to match needs linked to the transposition of European legislation to the complexity of the Peninsula’s environment and the national nursery system. The main objective in this technical note is to present the map units in relation to the distribution of main forest species. The map units of ecoregional meaning might facilitate new allocations for forest reproductive materials which are needed to increase genetic diversity. Furthermore, studies on genetic variability of forest species are required to understand the possible interactions between the ecological amplitude of forest species, their actual genetic diversity, and possible adaptation to future climate conditions

    Diversity and structure of Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman stands in the Tchabal forest massif: A case study from Adamawa Cameroon: Phytodiversity of Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman in Cameroon

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    The aim of this work is to provide basic data for a better knowledge of Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman stands through a non-exhaustive floristic inventory in the Sudano-Guinean zone of Cameroon. Transects of 2,000 x 20 m² were installed in these stands in the Tchabal forest massif. The inventory concerned timbers with dbh ≥ 10 cm. Herbaceous were counted according to the "sigmatiste zuricho-montpelléraine” method. In total, 25 families distributed in 41 genera and 46 species and for herbaceous, 19 families distributed in 42 genera and 46 species were recorded in the stands. The stands of Bontadji and Horé-Déo are the richest. Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Ficus thonningii Blume and Croton macrostachyus Hochst. ex Delile are the most abundant taxa in each site. The Fongoy I locality stands are the most diversified (ISH: 0.87 ± 0.07; H': 0.99 ± 0.01). There is a floristic similarity of about 30% between localities. The stands of Fongoy I are very dense and basal area (D=394 ± 0.31 individuals/ha and BA= 25.80 ± 8.05 m²/ha). Structural analysis shows an "L" shape attesting to the presence of future stems. This observation is supported by the vertical structure of the stands. This information constitutes an important argument for the protection of the environment

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