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    Tom Frey email interview about United States - Russian smokejumper exchanges

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    This interview consists of questions asked via email by the National Smokejumper Association to Bruce Ford for background to an article in September 2023 for the Smokejumper Magazine article US-Russian Smokejumper Exchanges: 1976-2004. Frey was a Bureau of Land Management smokejumper who participated in exchanges in the 1990s and 2000s

    A case study of professional musicians and their perceptions of the impact of aural learning experiences in developing musicianship

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    This narrative case study examines the perceptions of three professional musicians on the impact of focused aural experiences (FAEs) in developing their musicianship. The participants include a professional instrumental performer, the director of a non-profit jazz school, and a retired high school band teacher. Each participant has engaged in performing, teaching, composing, arranging, and/or conducting in some capacity at various stages of their careers. The research explores the roles that focused aural experiences may have had in shaping each individual’s musical development by examining their perceptions of the impacts of such experiences on their overall musicianship. Focused aural experiences (FAEs) are defined here as any formal or informal activities in which the individual learned music by ear, learned to play an instrument by ear, or listened to music with focused intent. Relevant formal activities might include taking formal aural training classes in a school setting, transcribing, and playing music by ear, and studying orchestration or composition through aural transcription. For the purposes of this study, focused aural experiences will be specifically differentiated from musical engagements where notation is more emphasized such as performing music through score reading, sight reading, score analysis, or notation-based music theory. This study aims to provide a perspective on the complex experiences that shape musical development specifically through the lens of FAEs, describe the nature of those experiences, and offer another pathway towards understanding the nature of music learning, the development of musicianship, and notions about the multidimensional nature of talent and ability

    Dismantling surplus tower

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    Smokejumpers dismantling a surplus tower at Wolf Creek to be used at the Cave Junction Smokejumper Base (Siskiyou Smokejumper Base).https://dc.ewu.edu/allen_photos/1027/thumbnail.jp

    Geotechnical Analysis of Soil Sample PP-2 from the Palouse Prairie Restoration Project, Cheney, WA

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    The Palouse Prairie Restoration Project is a plan to return 120 designated acres of agricultural land to its original, natural state and provide educational and research opportunities to the broader EWU community. We collected soil sample PP-2 from the upper portion of the south face of a loess hill located at latitude 47.49371, longitude -117.59267, elevation 2,542 feet above mean sea level near the EWU water tower. Palouse Prairie soil originated as glacially derived silt that was carried by wind from the Puget Sound then deposited in eastern Washington during the last Ice Age. We conducted ASTM standard tests on sample PP-2 to determine geotechnical properties of the soil including specific gravity, Atterberg Limits, particle size distribution, optimal water content for compaction, and unconfined compressive strength. This information will help project managers make better-informed decisions related to proposed infrastructure development including pathways, a visitor center, amphitheater, and parking areas

    Canine testes thin section culture

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    Testes tissue culture systems would provide a tool to elucidate spermatogenesis mechanisms, with the aim of genetic preservation of mammals, especially endangered species. Our experiment aims to develop a culture system capable of producing viable mammalian sperm cells in vitro. Dogs were chosen as the model organism because testes are readily available. Canine testes were obtained from a local veterinary clinic. Thin sections were generated using a commercial electric slicer. They then were cleaned using Dulbecco’s Phosphate-Buffered Saline (DPBS) supplemented with antibiotics then cultured in a modified Tissue Culture Medium 199 (TCM-199). Sections were cultured in an environment aimed to best reflect realistic physiological conditions, that is 7%CO2 : 7%O2 : balanced N2 at 37 degrees Celsius. Finally, the sections were stained with live/dead cell stain and observed under a fluorescence microscope to determine viability. Numerous live stained nuclei were observed, proving their high viability (~100% viability) after 21 days of culturing. Sections reformed during culture to assume a tiny testes-like morphology. Fungal contamination was detected in all culture dishes at various time points during the experiment from unknown sources. The sections then were washed with DPBS supplemented with antimycotic before being again cultured in fresh medium. For ongoing experiments, the culture system will be revised to prevent fungal contamination. While spermatogenesis takes approximately 60 days in vivo, testes thin sections were maintained for 21 days, therefore culture duration will be extended in the future. Overall, our result demonstrated a cost-effective culture system to potentially obtain viable mammalian sperm cells

    Investigating the Effects of Acetone Vapor Treatment Conditions and Post Drying Methods on Surface Roughness and Tensile Strength of 3D Printed ABS Components

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    The additive manufacturing/3D printing process using the material Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) is melted and printed layer by layer to create parts most often used in rapid prototyping or mass production of products. The additive manufacturing process of 3D printing often results in discontinuities and structural uncertainties causing voids and poor layer bonding. Past documented research investigated 3D printed ABS samples in different orientations and how to improve their tensile strength and fatigue life. This prior research also investigated a surface treatment method using Acetone Vapor Smoothing (AVS) on 3D printed ABS parts. That data confirmed the reduction of stress concentrations on the surfaces and a reduction of structural inconsistencies by AVS methods in the ABS parts. Using AVS methods decreased the roughness of the 3D printed samples creating a smooth surface finish. A correlation was established to an improved tensile strength and fatigue life using an adjusted acetone vapor exposure and improving drying methods. Current research uses the acetone vapor exposure from the previous study that displayed the most improved tensile strength and minimized stress concentrations and structural inconsistencies within the 3D printed parts. This research will determine the optimal drying time which produces the largest tensile strength in the ABS components of various print orientations. Additional research on the improvement of surface roughness utilizing AVS methods are performed on 3D printed samples will be conducted to determine a correlation to tensile strength

    Geotechnical Engineering Analysis of Soil Sample PP-4 from the EWU Palouse Prairie Restoration Project, Cheney, WA

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    Eastern Washington University is located on the Palouse, a region in the Inland Northwest distinguished by rolling hills formed by wind blown loess of glacial origin. Due to agriculture, only 1% of this region still maintains its natural habitat. EWU has dedicated a third of its land to restore a portion of the Palouse to its natural state in a multidisciplinary project called the Palouse Prairie Restoration Project. We collected soil from the north face of a hill on the project site to determine its geotechnical properties. We conducted ASTM standard tests on our sample to determine specific gravity, Atterberg Limits, particle size distribution, optimal water content for compaction, and unconfined compressive strength. This information will help EWU develop infrastructure on the site including trails, visitor center, amphitheater, and parking lots

    Love, lies and semipire live

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    Effects of Procrastination and Intrinsic Motivation on Academic Performance and Life Satisfaction in Upper Division Courses

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    Traditional procrastination has been defined as an intentional delay in starting an act, which often leads to a negative outcome. Procrastination has been shown to be related to poor academic performance. However, some have argued that one type of procrastination – active procrastination (AP) – can sometimes provide benefits, as individuals intentionally use time pressure to increase motivation. Active procrastination predict better academic performance, whereas passive procrastination (PP) – avoiding the task and trying to act as if there were no task looming – predict poorer academic performance. The hypothesis for the current study were that higher AP would be associated with higher performance than lower AP or higher PP. 100 undergraduate students in online psychology classes were offered extra credit and completed at least part of the survey. AP and PP were assessed with scales, and academic performance was determined by grades on a term paper. The surveys were presented via Survey Monkey; instructor entered grade information, then deleted the identifying information before researcher received the data file. Pearson’s correlations were performed among both scales and the academic performance measure. AP was positively correlated with grades, whereas PP was negatively correlated. These results will be interpreted through the findings of previous studies

    Developing Cryopreservation Methods of Wheat Roots

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    In the midst of record breaking rates of plant species extinction due to climate change and fungal diseases, a universal cryopreservation method would provide a means for preservation of these many different species. The concept of plant root cryopreservation first emerged in the late 1960’s, and with it came new avenues of preserving tissue for the purposes of agriculture and research. Frozen tissues can be transported and stored more reliably than other more conventional means. When thawed, they have the potential to be cultured and grown. Several different methods of cryopreservation exist. This experiment used the Fast (3°C/minute) and Slow freeze (0.3°C/minute) method with a controlled freezing unit on a wheat plant species. Cryoprotectant solutions containing 10% DMSO or 10% glycerol were used in conjunction with high (3.11 M) and low (1.5 M) sorbitol concentrations. A no sorbitol group was also tested. After being frozen, samples were transferred to a liquid nitrogen tank for storage, and later thawed. Thawed samples were stained with fluorescent dyes to observe live and dead cells under fluorescent microscopy. Root tips were deemed “surviving” if multiple live nuclei were present. In the glycerol group, Slow freezing showed a higher survival rate, while the DMSO group had good survival rates for both freezing rates. The Slow freeze rate showed greater survival rates overall compared to the Fast rate. Future experiments to develop a universal method will include testing on various plant species, such as potato plants, and succulents


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