Masaryk University Journals / Časopisy Masarykovy univerzity
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    Criteria and rules for privacy management prior to self-disclosures on social network sites (SNSs)

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    This study applied a novel theoretical framework of communication privacy management theory (CPM) to examine how criteria such as context, culture, and privacy motivation influence information boundary coordination rules (boundary linkage, ownership, and permeability rules) on Facebook. In particular, the current study has made an initial attempt to examine how the CPM’s boundary coordination rules are related as a process to make disclosures; how to manage connections (boundary linkage rule) and how to regulate information flow (boundary ownership rule) influence how much to disclose (boundary permeability rule) on Facebook. The study recruited active Facebook users (N = 397, Mage = 20.68, SDage = 3.63) in a large northeastern US university to complete an online survey in fall 2015. A structural equation model was proposed to test the hypothesized paths among variables proposed to build the model. Findings reveal that context (perceptions of boundless communication) and privacy motivation led to the coordination of strict boundary ownership rules for disclosure on Facebook. The context and privacy motivation however differ in their influence on the coordination of boundary linkage rule; the more individuals felt the greater need for privacy, the less likely that they attempted to create connection whereas perceiving a lack of boundaries in communication did not influence the pursuance of future connections. The culture (the goal of using Facebook for making friends) did not predict either the coordination of the boundary linkage rule or the boundary ownership rule. As expected, the coordination of the boundary linkage rule positively influenced the coordination of the permeability rule (depth of disclosure), but the coordination of the boundary ownership rule negatively influenced it. The statistical test suggested an addition of a path from the boundary ownership to the boundary linkage rule, generating an implication that the regulation of information flow (privacy desire) and managing networks (connection desire) work together in disclosure decisions. Implications of the findings on different roles of privacy motivation and context in forming privacy management and disclosure tendency are discussed to advance the modeling of comprehensive information boundary management for disclosures on SNSs

    Concern about appearance on Instagram and Facebook: Measurement and links with eating disorders

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    Appearance-related use of Social Networks (SNs) exhibits a clear relationship with the risk of eating disorders (ED). To determine which components of appearance-related use are most important for the detection and prediction of ED, it is necessary to measure concern about appearance on SNs in detail. The two main objectives of this study are to develop and validate the Concern about appearance on SNs scale (CONAPP), and to analyze the relationships between concern about appearance on SNs and the risk of ED. A total of 576 Spanish women over 18 years old, with an average age of 28.88 (SD = 11.14), participated in an online survey. We evaluated the use of the two most-commonly used SNs (Facebook and Instagram), concern about appearance on SNs, and eating attitudes (the latter through the Eating Attitudes Test-26). The psychometric properties of the CONAPP questionnaire were excellent. Strong positive correlations were found between concern about appearance on SNs and risk of ED. The pattern differed between users of Facebook and Instagram. Instagram users were younger, demonstrated higher risk of EDs and higher scores in the CONAPP questionnaire. The implications of the results for the prevention of ED are discussed

    Securing Persons in the Contemplated Re-Codification of the Criminal Procedural Law

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    Tento článek se zaměřuje na tu partii návrhu nového trestného řádu, která upravuje zákonná ustanovení o zajištění osob v trestním řízení (vazba, zadržení, předvolání atd.). Poskytuje přehled celkové koncepce návrhu nové úpravy, představuje ty nejvýznamnější změny a mezi nimi identifikuje ty nejvíce problematické novinky zamýšlené úpravy, jež následně podrobuje kritické analýze, ústící do konkrétních doporučení, jak napravit jejich nedostatky. Kromě toho se věnuje také těm místům návrhu, která byla víceméně bez větších změn převzata ze současného trestního řádu, ačkoliv podle názoru autora zasluhovaly modernizaci. V hledáčku tohoto článku se tak ocitlo především zadržení osoby, pátrání po osobách, pořádkové zajištění svědka a několik aspektů vazby.The paper focuses on the part of the draft new code of criminal procedure which regulates legal provisions on securing persons in the criminal proceedings (custody, apprehension, summoning etc.). It provides an overview of the conception of the new proposed regulation as well as a presentation of the most significant changes and identifies the most problematic novelties among them, which it then subjects to a critical analysis resulting into a concrete recommendation how to amend their shortcomings. Above from that, it also pays its attention to the portions of the draft that were in principle taken over from the current Code of Criminal Procedure without any major changes, although according to the author’s opinion they deserved a modernization. Apprehension of a suspect, searching for persons, securing of a witness for order-keeping and several aspects of pre-trial custody are the highlighted areas at which the spotlight of this article is targeted

    The First Season After the COVID-19 Pandemic Cardiorespiratory and Statistics’ Performance in Czech Ice Hockey Players

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    The study describes the cardiorespiratory and statistics performance of ice hockey players during the season of 2020 after the COVID-19 lockdown’. Eight elite Czech male players (4 non-COVID-19 and 4 COVID-19 groups) were evaluated before and after the competition season. Players performed a cardiorespiratory exercise test and the maximal oxygen consumption, ventilatory threshold, respiratory compensation point, maximal heart rate and test time were measured. The number of matches, goals and plus/minus statistics were retained. No significant differences between groups before and after the season for all cardiorespiratory responses were found, and the no-COVID-19 group played more games. The conclusion highlights that the cardiorespiratory performance place all players (with and without COVID-19 history) in similar conditions to be prepared for the next season. Due to a wide variation among players’ statistics, based on plus/minus parameters, cannot be established that the 2020 season impaired the players’ statistics

    Dysfunctional risks of the internet and their overlap in the different stages of adolescence

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    The use of the internet is a normative phenomenon associated with problems for younger people. The dysfunctional risks are those in which there is a problematic use of technologies that generates negative consequences. General Problematic Internet Use (GPIU) is the most prevalent, while Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) and Online Gambling Disorder (OGD) are less prevalent, perhaps because they are Clinical problems and notably more severe. They have been widely studied separately but have hardly been examined conjointly and overlappingly. This study employs a sample with a broad age range including participants across the three stages of adolescence (early, middle, and late) and emerging adulthood. The objectives are to analyze: 1) the overall prevalence of GPIU, IGD and OGD; 2) the prevalence of GPIU, IGD and OGD according to the degree of the reported problem; 3) overlap of GPIU, IGD and OGD. These objectives will be carried out according to the variable sex and stages of adolescence. Cross-sectional and analytical study with 7,295 participants aged between 11 and 22 years. Considering risk, 13.8% of the participants had one or more risks; 11.5% presented at least one risk, 9.6% presented GPIU; 2% presented GPIU and IGD together; in only 0.1% did all three risks overlap. Girls present higher prevalence of GPIU, and boys of IGD, OGD and in all the overlaps. There is a general upward trend in middle and late adolescence versus early adolescence in these risks, which decline in emerging adulthood. These data are discussed concerning their importance in psychoeducational prevention and intervention actions

    Regulating Access to Big Data? – Between Ex-Ante and Ex-Post Economic Regulation

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    Big Data can be a monopolistic bottleneck that restricts access to downstream markets of companies that do not control the appropriate set of Big Data. This article examines both the drawbacks of competition law when applied to Big Data-driven markets as well as different possible forms of ex-ante economic regulation of access to Big Data, all with the aim of answering the research question: Is ex-post economic regulation alone insufficient to ensure access to competitively relevant Big Data, and if so, what type of ex-ante economic regulation would be most effective? In doing so it concludes that competition law is not a suitable primary tool for requesting access to Big Data for several reasons, in particular because competition law procedures are lengthy, market definition is difficult in the absence of a monetary price for the product, and markets driven by Big Data tend to be structurally inefficiently competitive. Asymmetrical ex-ante regulation is identified as the most appropriate form of regulating access to Big Data

    The Influence of the HIIT and Aerobic Training Programs on Body Composition.

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    Purpose: According to studies, the increased risk of obesity in today's general population is mainly caused by insufficient physical activity. In this study, we compared the effect of two types of endurance training. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) and aerobic (continuous) load training and their impact on selected aspects of body composition. Methods: This study included women (n = 14; 32 years old; height 166.3cm; weight 62.5kg) divided into two groups of seven participants. The tested groups were selected by a deliberate selection of 7 probands, training thrice a week for ten weeks. An entrance and exit examination was conducted using non-invasive techniques (anthropometric measurements, body composition analysis – bioimpedance analysis). A paired T-test (p < 0.05) was used for parameter analysis. Cohen's d was used to assess material significance. Results: Despite the small sample of tested women, better results were achieved in the group implementing the high-intensity interval training. However, these data do not allow for assessing a statistically significant difference between the two types of training methods in reducing the percentage of body fat. Changes in monitored parameters were thus evaluated as statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Despite the relevant results, better results were achieved in the HIIT intervention program. The limiting factors of the study were a small research sample with a deliberate selection and insufficient possibility to control eating habits. Furthermore, it is necessary to pay attention to the higher readiness and motivation of the participants. High-intensity interval training, thanks to its variability and low time requirement, proved to be a suitable exercise program for changing body composition not only in people with obesity but also in the adult population in general

    “Football Did Not Make Me a World Champion, but It Did Help My Wellbeing”: A Qualitative Study of Study-sport Balance Based on Fung Ka Ki

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    Managing the balance of academic and athletic responsibilities at university is a serious challenge for student athletes. This phenomenological case study illuminates how one individual successfully managed his study-sport balance at university, and how such experiences shaped his life. Through two semi-structured interviews, the participant Fung Ka Ki, a former student athlete turned international footballer, made sense of his lived experiences at university and achievements post-university. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was employed for the qualitative analysis. Two themes were derived: 1) Deploying athletic wisdom to inform life coping strategies, 2) Wellbeing through intellect and body developing together as a system. The findings provide insights into how mental and physical discipline may complement each other to create deep existential wellbeing. The study contributes to the on-going debate on whether high performance athletes should further their studies at university, and indicates ways sports and wellbeing practitioners may support student athletes more effectively

    The relationship between Internet use and self-concept clarity: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    There are three hypotheses regarding the relationship between Self-Concept Clarity (SCC) and Internet use. It was argued that Internet use: 1) decreases SCC, 2) increases SCC, 3) does not relate with SCC. The present study, in the form of a systematic and meta-analytic synthesis, aimed to explore: a) the extent empirical evidence can support each hypothesis; b) how Internet use-SCC relationship was addressed across studies; c) the intensity of the Internet use –SCC relationship; d) potential moderators. Twenty-one studies (N = 8,910) met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review (i.e., being quantitative, written in English, concerned with Internet use -SCC relationship) and 11 studies (N = 3,298) met the additional criteria for meta-analysis (i.e., being correlational, using self-evaluation instruments, quantifying general Internet use and including the information needed to calculate the meta-analysis specific indicators). Results emphasized that all three hypotheses are plausible, as distinct dimensions of Internet use related differently with SCC. However, the conclusions were limited by the extensive use of cross-sectional design. For general Internet use and SCC relationship the overall effect was -0.350, p < .01. Some moderators were significant: cultural background, Internet operationalization, age homogeneity, participants rewarding. This paper outlines the complexity of SCC – Internet relationship and underlines some of the gaps that should be further addressed. Implications and limits of the study (e.g., publication bias, excluded outcomes in the meta-analysis or possible omission of moderators) are discussed

    Variables Influencing the Emotional Attachment of Adolescents in Prague Schools to Physical Education

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    Background: Emotional attachment to any activity is a frequently discussed topic. Backgrounds speak of the importance of building emotional attachment since childhood, we agree with this idea and in school Physical Education we see one of the important means that can significantly influence this attachment in the field of physical activities. The aim of the study is to define the variables that influence the emotional attachment of pupils in school Physical Education. Method: A questionnaire used by Antalou & al. for a similar investigation in Slovakia was chosen by the research tool. After assessing the normality of the data, we chose the Kruskal- Wallis test for statistical data processing. Results: Our research group contained 480 respondents from 22 schools in Prague. 38% of pupils have a negative relationship with Physical Education 41% of pupils have a neutral relationship. Emotional attachment affects the state of health. Often, sick students have a more positive relationship with physical education. Conclusions: Pupils who are not focused on performance perceive TV more positively than pupils focused on performance. Children's emotional attachment to physical activities is important, we recommend working on tools to better clarify this area

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