Masaryk University Journals / Časopisy Masarykovy univerzity
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    The Effect of Suspension Training on Some Factors Related to the Shoulder Injuries in Athletes with Scapular Dyskinesis

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    This study aimed to examine the effect of suspension training on some factors related to the shoulder injuries in athletes with scapular dyskinesis. The present study employed a semi-experimental pre-test and post-test design. Thirty male athletes with scapular dyskinesis were randomly allocated into either the training or control group, with 15 individuals in each. Identification of scapular dyskinesis was conducted through the utilization of a lateral scapular slide test. During the pre-test stage, the shoulder joint muscles strength, proprioception and functional stability, were assessed via manual dynamometer, upper body functional balance test, and imaging methods, respectively. Subsequently, the training group participated in an 8-week suspension training, with three sessions per week. Following the 8-week intervention period, all participants underwent the same measurements administered during the pre-test stage. Statistical analysis was conducted using a two-way analysis of variance at a significance level of P≤0.05 to analyze the research findings. The findings from the two-way analysis of variance indicated that, during the post-test stage, the experimental group showed significant enhancements in muscle strength, functional stability, and accuracy of shoulder joint proprioception in comparison to the control group. The study's results suggest that suspension training used in this study can be employed to enhance shoulder muscle strength, functional stability, and accuracy of shoulder joint proprioception, which may assist in ameliorating disorders resulting from scapular dyskinesis. Furthermore, the findings imply that incorporating these exercises into training regimens could help prevent shoulder joint injuries. &nbsp

    Even Things Have their Destinies. On the Disputes over the Estate of František Weyr

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    Františka Weyra je možné bez pochyby považovat za největší osobnost v historii Právnické fakulty Masarykovy univerzity a nejvýznamnějšího českého právníka první poloviny dvacátého století. Weyr po sobě nezanechal nejen vlastní vědeckou školu nazývanou jako normativní teorie, která v pojetí jeho žáků přežívala i po jeho smrti, nýbrž i nevydané rukopisy, vilu a řadu movitých věcí. Jejich dalším osudům se věnuje tento příspěvek, který byl vypracován na základě provedeného archivního výzkumu a mj. analyzuje právní spory, jež v padesátých a šedesátých letech minulého století vedla jeho manželka Helena Weyrová. Do těchto sporů se přímo i nepřímo zapojili další profesoři v té době již zrušené brněnské právnické fakulty, jako byl Vladimír Vybral či Vladimír Kubeš.František Weyr can undoubtedly be considered the greatest personality in the history of the Faculty of Law of the Masaryk University and the most important Czech lawyer of the first half of the twentieth century. Weyr left behind not only his own scientific school, known as normative theory, which survived in the minds of his students even after his death, but also a villa and a number of movables. Their subsequent fate is the subject of this paper, which was prepared on the basis of archival research and among other things deals with the legal disputes that his wife, Helena Weyrová, led in the 1950s and 1960s. These disputes directly and indirectly involved other professors of the then already closed Brno Faculty of Law, such as Vladimír Vybral and Vladimír Kubeš

    The Position of the Warm-up in School Physical Education Lessons

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    The essence of the presented research is to use a video study to analyse the position of the warm-up in physical education lessons at the lower secondary schools in the Zlín region. The research has a descriptive character and is quantitatively oriented.Based on the data analysis, it was found that out of the total time of the physical education teaching unit, the actual length of a physical education lesson was on average 36 minutes and 30 seconds. The warming up was devoted to an average of 6 minutes and 22 seconds of the actual length of the physical education lesson.Another finding was a connection between the content of the warming up and the main part in most teaching units. The warming up was led mainly by teachers (15 teaching units) and pupils (14 teaching units). In the warming up, mobilization (dynamic) exercises and static stretching were the most common. The teacher's most common activity was to point out mistakes that students made during practice. The other most common activities (except for the category "other", where more things were included: such as organization, health solutions, etc.) were verbal instructions. The most common organization of position is the so-called "free in space".Warming up has its place in physical education lessons. It is proved by not only that the warm-up took place in all monitored physical education but also the physical education teachers have the interest to include innovative elements (not only) into the warming up. This fact opens another possibility in the field of education of physical education teachers

    Home Advantage in the top Czech Hockey League

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    Home advantage in sport has long been established as an important factor in determining the outcome of a match. According to this phenomenon, the home team should win more games and score more goals than the away team. Home advantage is a very complex phenomenon that is influenced by many different factors. One possible explanation is that the home crowd supports the home team's performance and also causes the referee to be under pressure and favor the home team. The aim of this paper is to quantify the home advantage in the Czech top hockey league. Using statistical analysis, the number of points scored, goals scored, shots taken, penalties awarded and penalty minutes in the 2019/20 season were compared. A total of 364 matches were analysed. The results showed the existence of a home advantage in the Czech top hockey league in the 2019/20 season. Implications for sport practice and possible directions for future research are discussed

    Sport as Part of a Good Life: Investigating the Debate

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    This paper is concerned with the question ‘What is the role of sport in a good life?’ My goal is to identify the main positions in a philosophical debate on the role of sport in a good life. Based on my readings I divide these positions into three general categories: (1) negative: sport does not belong to the realm of a good life); (2) differentiated: sport contributes to living a good life, but it is not the main domain; and (3) affirmative: sport significantly contributes to living a good life. I want to highlight those aspects of sport to which these positions refer and some arguments that these positions offer. The originality of this research lies in clarifying the main approaches (i.e. describing their general content and structure) and making their arguments explicit. This article is of theoretical nature and uses tools that are standardly used when dealing with these types of research questions, with the most important ones being description, demonstration of relevant thoughts, comparison, evaluation, and interpretation

    Social network sites and obsessive-compulsive disorder: An investigation with suppression analyses

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    This research examined the relationship between social network site (SNS) intensity, SNS addiction, and the severity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), alongside its factors of obsession and compulsion. The overlap of SNS intensity and SNS addiction was controlled in the study to predict the measured severity of OCD. In this study, 204 Malaysian undergraduate students were recruited to complete the revised Facebook Intensity Scale, the revised Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale, and the self-report version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. The overlap of SNS intensity and SNS addiction was supported by their significant positive correlation. Furthermore, SNS addiction significantly correlated with the measured OCD and its corresponding factors. The hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the entry of SNS intensity enhanced the facilitative effect of SNS addiction on OCD and its factors. Therefore, the role of SNS intensity as a suppressor was supported. In the same regression model, SNS intensity predicted the severity of OCD and its compulsion subscale negatively. Implications and directions for future research were also discussed in this manuscript

    Loneliness is negatively related to Facebook network size, but not related to Facebook network structure

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    High levels of loneliness are associated with poorer outcomes for physical and mental health and a large body of research has examined how using social media sites such as Facebook is associated with loneliness. Time spent on Facebook tends to be associated with higher levels of loneliness, whereas a larger number of Facebook Friends and more active use of Facebook tends to be associated with lower levels of loneliness. However, whilst the network size and structure of ‘offline’ networks have been associated with loneliness, how the network structure on Facebook is associated with loneliness is still unclear. In this study, participants used the Getnet app to directly extract information on network size (number of Facebook Friends), density, number of clusters in the network, and average path length from their Facebook networks, and completed the 20-item UCLA Loneliness questionnaire. In total, 107 participants (36 men, 71 women, Mage = 20.6, SDage = 2.7) took part in the study. Participants with a larger network size reported significantly lower feelings of loneliness. In contrast, network density, number of clusters, and average path length were not significantly related to loneliness. These results suggest that whilst having a larger Facebook network is related to feelings of social connection to others, the structure of the Facebook network may be a less important determinant of loneliness than other factors such as active or passive use of Facebook and individual characteristics of Facebook users

    Trust in algorithmic decision-making systems in health: A comparison between ADA health and IBM Watson.

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    Algorithmic decision-making systems (ADMs) support an ever-growing number of decision-making processes. We conducted an online survey study in Flanders (n = 1,082) to understand how laypeople perceive and trust health ADMs. Inspired by the ability, benevolence, and integrity trustworthiness model (Mayer et al., 1995), this study investigated how trust is constructed in health ADMs. In addition, we investigated how trust construction differs between ADA Health (a self-diagnosis medical chatbot) and IBM Watson Oncology (a system that suggests treatments for cancer in hospitals). Our results show that accuracy and fairness are the biggest predictors of trust in both ADMs, whereas control plays a smaller yet significant role. Interestingly, control plays a bigger role in explaining trust in ADA Health than IBM Watson Oncology. Moreover, how appropriate people evaluate data-driven healthcare and how concerned they are with algorithmic systems prove to be good predictors for accuracy, fairness, and control in these specific health ADMs. The appropriateness of data-driven healthcare had a bigger effect with IBM Watson Oncology than with ADA Health. Overall, our results show the importance of considering the broader contextual, algorithmic, and case-specific characteristics when investigating trust construction in ADMs

    Security Concerns and Conflict Experience of Physically Disabled People in The Czech Republic

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    People with disabilities are more vulnerable to violence than their non-disabled counterparts. The fear of crime increases with the experience of victimization. There are many attempts to enhance the confidence of being outside alone or decrease the fear of crime through self-defense courses. The aim of the present study is to determine the level of security concerns in people with physical disabilities and to identify the most frequent crime they are facing. 77 physically disabled people (aged 15 and more; 45 women, 32 men; 5 elementary, 44 secondary, 28 higher educated) participated in the research. 49 participants use mechanic or electric wheelchair, 19 participants use other compensatory aids, 9 participants do not use any compensatory aids. 35 participants use the assistant service, 42 do not. Data was collected via a questionnaire of four parts, in which participants expressed their security concerns, confidence, or vulnerability in given situations through a 6point scale. Each part of the questionnaire is supplemented by an open question encouraging participants to express their experience. People with disabilities have a slight fear of possible conflict situations. This fear increases in conditions with a greater chance of a potential conflict situation or areas that cannot be left immediately. The results suggest a slight sense of helplessness in verbal conflict situations or a developing conflict that can still be de-escalated. We can assume that people with disabilities feel very vulnerable when it comes to direct physical assault

    Relationships among selfie-viewing on social media, thin-ideal internalization, and restrained eating in adolescents: The buffering role of media literacy

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    The aim of the present study was to test the relationship between selfie-viewing on social media and restrained eating as well as the mediating effect of thin-ideal internalization in this relationship. We also examined whether the links from selfie-viewing to thin-ideal internalization and restrained eating would be moderated by media literacy. Moreover, whether gender would moderate the mediation model was also examined. Results on a survey of 1,481 Chinese adolescents aged 12–⁠19 years showed that selfie-viewing had a positive relationship with restrained eating and that thin-ideal internalization mediated this relationship. Furthermore, the association between selfie-viewing and thin-ideal internalization was moderated by media literacy. Specifically, the relationship was weaker for adolescents with higher media literacy. In other words, media literacy alleviated the negative effect of selfie-viewing on body image. Moreover, there were no gender differences in the mediation model. These findings add to the literature on the relationship between social media use and restrained eating. Educational programs aiming to improve media literacy may be beneficial for reducing the risk of restrained eating among adolescents

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