White Rose E-theses Online

    Doubles and Duplicity: Topics in Vienna Around the Long Fin-de-Siècle, 1874-1928.

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    Topic theory was originally proposed as a method of analysing diatonic eighteenth-century music; twentieth-century non-tonal and twelve-tone compositions have largely lain untouched. Monelle’s concept of formulating a historical trace answers the criticisms made of topic theory—its superficial and axiomatic style—by grounding each topic through an investigation into its historical representations. Analyses within this thesis of texted works by Mahler, Schoenberg and Webern create a Viennese topical sphere from which multivalent networks of signification form. Subsequently, links emerge between these networks and the unique political and cultural situation in Vienna, with works of literature, Freud’s psychoanalytical theories, and cultural alienation. Through rhetorical devices, such as irony or satire, their meanings become duplicitous, overturning their traditional associations, in particular, the waltz’s relationship with its predecessor, the Ländler, which reflects the psychoanalytic concept of the double and the primal trauma. In addition, each chapter includes an analysis of a contemporaneous operetta in order to demonstrate that the topics found in the art music of the period were common outside of the intellectual “circle” and perhaps understood by the common theatre audiences. The thesis concludes with works by Webern, demonstrating that despite his revolutionary aphoristic style, the underlying narratives parallel the yearning for nature from Mahler’s generation and critique the conventional portrayal of their feeling of bourgeois alienation and acceptance of society’s constraints rather than their forced derivation from them. By merging the psychological expression of Schoenberg with the cultural representation of Mahler, he combined the radical and the revolutionary and made them conventional. Ultimately, this thesis shows that not only are there topics in the music of twentieth-century Viennese composers, a premise already beginning to be investigated by others, but further that the topics are signifiers of the culture in which they are situated—they are quintessentially Viennese

    Synchronization techniques for femtocell networks

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    Femtocells are small, low-cost and low-power cellular base stations optimized for providing wireless voice and broadband services to customers in a relatively small area. Femtocells are considered to be one of the most promising solutions for future wireless communication with all the advantages that they bring, such as better indoor coverage, higher spectrum efficiency and lower energy consumption to name but a few. However time synchronization for femtocells is very challenging. Femtocells are expected to be equipped with cheap and less accurate crystal oscillators, which cannot satisfy the femtocell synchronization requirements. Moreover, femtocells are deployed in a variety of scenarios with different synchronization requirements and so different synchronization solutions are needed. Existing solutions for some of the femtocell synchronization scenarios either are unsuitable for that particular scenario or suffer serious performance degradation. Therefore, this thesis is focused on investigating the time synchronization problem for femtocells and proposing novel synchronization schemes. This thesis mainly investigated two femtocell synchronization methods: synchronization via backhaul and synchronization via neighbouring cells listening. Femtocell synchronization using the IEEE 1588 protocol, which is seen as the major solution for femtocell synchronization via backhaul, suffers from both asymmetric and random delay problems. An ‘improved IEEE 1588’ scheme is firstly proposed, which utilizes additional packets with different sizes in every IEEE 1588 synchronization process to solve both of these problems. Although the simulation results show that the ‘improved IEEE 1588’ scheme successfully overcomes both aforementioned limitations and yields much better synchronization accuracy than the conventional scheme, it also brings an additional undesirable overhead. Therefore, this thesis also presented a ‘variable-length IEEE 1588’ scheme, where the length of transmitted packets varies periodically. Simulation results show that the synchronization accuracy of the ‘variable-length IEEE 1588’ scheme is similar to the ‘improved IEEE 1588’ scheme but with the advantage of a significantly reduced number of transmitted messages. For femtocell synchronization via neighbouring cells listening, listening to other synchronized femtocells is an important approach, especially for femtocells in SOHO (Small Office and Home Office) area where the femtocells overlap with each other and then form a wireless femtocell network. This thesis carefully examines the time synchronization in wireless femtocell networks. First, the receiver-receiver synchronization (RRS), which has proved efficient in WSNs (wireless sensor networks), is applied in wireless femtocell networks. Two new RRS based synchronization schemes are proposed for different scenarios to ensure better availability. Second, a hybrid synchronization scheme based on wireless IEEE 1588 and RRS is proposed for wireless femtocell networks. The synchronization accuracy and robustness of this hybrid scheme are then evaluated through simulations. Finally, the synchronization scenario where the femtocell is connected to more than one synchronization sources is studied. The basic solution for this scenario is to simply select the best synchronization source when it is available. A two-step weighted multiple linear regression (WMLR) based synchronization scheme is proposed for this case, and it is proved via simulations that it provides better synchronization accuracy and better stability than the basic solution, especially when the two synchronization sources are comparable

    Analysis of Translation Shifts Using Systemic Functional Linguistics: Textuality of news between Japanese and English

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    Translated news are target-oriented and therefore translation shifts are general practice in news translation. However, little research has been conducted to reveal specific shifts involving English and Japanese. With a view to contribute to translator training, the main objective of this project is to establish patterns and motivations of shifts in news translation between English and Japanese. Two types of shifts are investigated. First, information content; additions, deletions or moves, and second, information flow, focusing on Theme. This project is corpus-based and a specialised corpus is compiled, consisting four sub-corpora; original news articles in English and in Japanese, their translations into Japanese and into English. They form parallel corpora as well as comparable. All the data are manually annotated for additions, deletions and moves and also for Theme using the UAM CorpusTool, adopting Systemic Functional Linguistics as framework for analysis. Literature claims most news articles undergo additions, deletions or moves during translation. In my study, additions are more common in English translations while in Japanese translations it is deletions. Rank-wise, below-the-clause shifts occur throughout the text while above-the-clause shifts tend to occur towards the beginning or end of the text. Regarding information flow, general trend of Theme realisation in translated news are similar to that of the TL in general. In addition Theme choice at the beginning of text units moves towards the TL norm, while still showing the ST influence. Particular types of Theme appear exclusively at specific locations in text in Japanese translation, in line with the non-translation Japanese texts. This suggests genre conventions of the TL are at work in Theme choice. News translation into English and Japanese indicates processes of standardisation and ST interference. Shifts concerning information content and flow are motivated by the genre conventions and the target reader’s relevance to and expectations for news articles

    The State of Democratisation in Afghanistan: An examination of the state-citizen relationship in a fragile context

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    Since the 1990s, democratisation has been upheld by international institutions, donor governments and development agencies as a means to achieve stability and development in post-conflict contexts. Conceived of as a way in which to make ‘fragile states’ less ‘fragile’, through encouraging greater interaction between individual citizens and the state structure, democratisation has been integral to post-conflict statebuilding programmes. To date, however, little evidence has emerged to indicate whether or not these programmes have actually facilitated any change in the relationship between ruler and ruled. Contemporary attempts to conceptualise, measure and practice democratisation commonly focus on the nature of the state-citizen relationship, and in doing so tend to portray the concepts of ‘the state’ and ‘the citizen’ as constant (or ideally constant) across contexts. In conflict-affected fragile states such as Afghanistan, however, standard conceptions of what the state should be or what role it should play, in the predominant Weberian legal-rational sense, are difficult to apply – primarily because these states have not emerged historically as did western European states. Expecting fragile states to fit the Weberian model, or produce a liberal brand of the state-citizen relationship, thus seems untenable. This thesis explores whether democratisation might occur in spaces other than that of this seemingly fundamental relationship. Using Charles Tilly’s 2007 framework as a basis for enquiry, the research examines the case of Afghanistan through compiling an historical narrative of ruler-ruled relationships and through analysing a new data set of local perspectives on the state collected from three provinces. The study concludes that alterations to this framework are needed if the nuances of change in the ruler-ruled relationship are to be captured adequately. Developing an alternative, the Comprehensive Democratisation Indicators (CDI) approach, the researcher argues that employing centre-community and state-citizen constructs in parallel provides a much more holistic picture of political change in contexts where the liberal institutions of ‘state’ and ‘citizen’ have not taken hold

    Untangling the effects of fishing effort and environmental variables on benthic communities of commercially fished scallop grounds

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    The Isle of Man fishing industry is currently predominated by two lucrative and heavily exploited scallop fisheries, targeting Pecten maximus and Aequipecten opercularis. The impacts of which have previously been investigated, however without the addition of environmental information. This thesis represents a unique long-term investigation into the impacts of fishing pressure and environmental variables on the benthic invertebrate communities of fishing grounds found around the Isle of Man. A significant positive trend in seawater temperature was found, along with an inverse correlation with chlorophyll-α. Fishing pressure was found to have a small, significant negative effect on indices of diversity; however environmental variables were unable to explain the remaining patterns in diversity. The composition of each of the benthic communities was then investigated in more detail. Fishing pressure had a significant negative effect on densities of benthic invertebrates at some grounds; however this study showed that many of the heavily fished sites were composed of dredge-tolerant species. Significant relationships were found between the densities of Asterias rubens and Porania pulvillus and several environmental variables on the south-west fishing grounds, suggesting that environmental variation, rather than fishing pressure was responsible for variations in these species. Further evidence was found of the negative impact of scallop dredging from the long-term analysis of a closed area, implemented in 1989. Recovery of P. maximus has occurred within this closure, without the concurrent increase in of the predatory starfish A.rubens. Relationships between several benthic species with the closed area and environmental variables were found. However, the results of this study indicate a complex ecosystem, which is also affected by predator-prey interactions. The overall findings of this research indicate that closed area management is a relatively straightforward and effective measure in this region. Future management decisions will however, have to account for the potential effects of climate change

    An Exploration of Problematic Smartphone Use among Chinese and British University Students

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    This body of research aimed to explore the prevalence and correlates of problematic smartphone use (PSU) among Chinese and UK university students. The studies presented in the thesis tested a hypothesised model of relationships between PSU and factors including academic anxiety, procrastination, self-regulation and life satisfaction. A cross-cultural comparison of PSU among Chinese and British undergraduates was also undertaken. The studies presented used self-reported questionnaire data and semi-structured interview data to address a series of research questions about the prevalence and correlates of PSU. Data were gathered from 475 undergraduates studying in a Chinese university, and 303 British undergraduates. Path analysis and framework analysis were used to analyse the data. A good model fit was found for the Chinese, but not the UK sample, in which PSU predicted academic procrastination and academic anxiety; and self-regulation predicted PSU, academic anxiety, academic procrastination and life satisfaction. Chinese undergraduates reported significantly higher levels of PSU than British students, with a medium to large effect size. In both China and the UK, females scored significantly higher for PSU than males. In both samples similar explanations were given for PSU. However, only the Chinese students cited difficulties in adapting to a freer college life after the sharp transition from a strictly managed high school life as an explanation. This thesis aims to enhance our understanding of the PSU, mental health and well-being of college students, and to explore some of the possible mechanisms underpinning it. This research indicates the importance of considering cultural factors and educational/contextual backgrounds when conducting studies on problematic smartphone use

    Assessing climate change impacts and indigenous adaptation strategies on forest resource use in Nigeria

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    The impacts of current global climate change vary, depending on the sector and the level of system’s resilience. This study analysed the impact and adaptation mechanisms to climate change among forest communities in Nigeria using a survey of 400 households from five ecological regions of Nigeria. Data were analysed using Ricardian, logit and cost benefit analysis models. Results show that the level of forest dependence varies from 14% in the Sudan savannah to over 47% in the mangrove. Over 88% of respondents have perceived climate change impact, with 84% of respondents noticing changes in forest resource use; these changes were less prevalent in the montane forest where over 65% have noticed no changes. The Ricardian analysis showed that the age and level of education of the household heads significantly and positively impacted on net revenue that the household derived from the forest. Predicted average annual household income from the forest was $3380. Increasing rainfall during winter and spring seasons significantly increase household net revenue by $62 and $75 respectively, and reduces income by $42 and $18 in summer and autumn respectively. A 1oC increase in temperature will lead to a very negligible annual loss in household net income from the forest in all zones. The adaptation options used by the forest communities are agroforestry, erosion control, changing dates of operations, use of improved cook stove, cultural practices, irrigation and migration. The ability to notice climate change and take up adaptation strategies were positively associated with spring rainfall and winter rainfall respectively, while both were negatively associated with summer and autumn rainfall. The determinants of adaptation strategies were level of education, transportation mode, market access, detecting of climate change, household size, access to electricity, number of years of forest use, extension visits and net revenue from the forest. Primary occupation (farming) and age of the household head were negatively associated with the adoption of different adaptation options. The cost benefit analysis showed that while the use of improved cookstove had the highest net profit, turnover ratio and net present value, the use of fertilizer was the least cost effective and together with poor infrastructure were the major barriers to adaptation. Anthropogenic disturbances were shown to exacerbate land use change and forest resource loss in conjunction with climate change. The results indicate a high level of awareness among the communities around the concepts of climate change and the perceived impacts on their forest use. Furthermore, it shows the effects of the combined interactions of climate change and anthropogenic disturbances on forest resource use which blurs the precision in the abstraction and attribution of impacts in Nigeria. This underscores the need for a further integrated research, combining the social and economic elements with biophysical perspectives of climate change impacts that can be useful for incorporating adaptation strategies into national development planning of not only Nigeria but many developing economies in order to build resilience among forest dependent communities

    LC-MS for the metabonomic study of human urine samples

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    The field of metabonomics is beginning to grow rapidly due to the ability to analyse biofluids, providing a 'snapshot' of biological processes that have happened (cf: proteomic/transcriptomic studies, which predict what may happen), making it possible to profile responses over time. The work described in this thesis was motivated by the aim of profiling clinical urine samples obtained from fracture patients, with a view to identifying potential biomarkers related to failed fracture healing. This led to the need to develop and evaluate metabonomic approaches, specifically a orthogonal separation approach complementary to the commonly-used reversed phase (RP) separation methods, namely hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILI C). Urine samples from healthy volunteers were collected and used to develop an LCMS 'metabonomic toolbox'. This development evaluated various aspects of a· metabonomic study that are commonly poorly reported within the literature: 'study design, sample collection storage and handling considerations, data extraction, normalisation and scaling methods, and multivariate data analysis tools. From the literature, the commonly-used method of normalising to creatinine was ' found to be unsuitable due to perturbations in the urinary excretion of creatinine due to factors such as illness. Methods used to evaluate system ~tability were also developed and added to the 'toolbox'. HILIC was successfully used as a separation technique orthogonal to RP, producing comparable results but using different metabolites; this highlights the fact that much potential information is P?ssibly being lost when only RP-LC-MS methods are used for analysis.The need to use both modes of ionisation polarity were also addressed for an increased coverage in biofluid metabolite profiles. , The knowledge gained in the development of the 'metabonomic toolbox' was used for the analysis of clinical urine samples. Despite the lack of properly time-setted samples and none of the recruited patients suffering delayed fracture healing, potential metabolites related to fracture healing were found. However, the samples were very different to previously-analysed samples from healthy volunteers; they , showed very large amounts of protein, which had a large range of molecular weights. These were' identified- proteomically. Finally, ESI-Q-o-ToF MS/MS, MALDI-ToFlToF MS/MS and racemic amino acid analysis were used for the structural determination of a pseudomonad biosurfactant, which was identified, unexpectedly, as the cyclic Iipopeptide white line inducing principle, WLIP

    Direct Photochemical Amination of Aromatics

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    The formation of aromatic carbon to nitrogen bonds is one of the most important processes used in the chemical industry. It is prevalent in many biologically-relevant molecules such as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. A modified Hofmann-Löffler-Freytag reaction, which allowed the direct functionalisation of aromatic C-H bonds using N-haloamines under UV-irradiation in highly acidic media, was first reported by Bock et al. in 1965.1 The reported conditions used concentrated sulfuric acid as solvent and demonstrated a minimal substrate scope. Here, it has been shown that UV-irradiation of N-chloroamines with 10 equivalents of methanesulfonic acid in DCM allows for the intramolecular amination of unfunctionalised aryl C-H bonds to form tetrahydroquinolines. These novel conditions have been extended to 30 examples including in a concise synthesis of the alkaloid natural product angustureine. Furthermore, studies have helped elucidate a potential mechanism of the reaction and led to the discovery of a 1,2-alkyl migration reaction. The reaction has also been shown to work in a continuous photochemical reactor. This was extended to work in a two-stage reactor where amines were chlorinated and reacted in situ to form tetrahydroquinolines directly. Some of the substrates produced with the photochemical methodology have been tested in enzymatic deracemizations using genetically modified monoamine oxidase enzymes. Whilst modest activity was observed for a series of N-substituted tetrahydroquinolines, a group of natural products containing N-unsubstituted tetrahydroquinoline cores were successfully deracemized, with ee’s as high as 90% obtained
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