White Rose E-theses Online

    The chemokine receptors XCR1, CXCR1 and CXCR2 regulate oral epithelial cell behaviour.

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    Chemokines are chemoattractant cytokines which act on specific receptors and play an important role in tumour biology. The aim of this project was to determine whether the chemokine receptors XCRl, CXCRl and CXCR2 and their respective ligands lymphotactin, IL-8 (CXCRl&2) and GRO-a regulate the behaviour of normal and malignant oral epithelial cells. XCRl, CXCRl and CXCR2 mRNA and surface protein expression was detected in normal and oral cancer cell lines. Lymphotactin, IL-8 and GRO-a facilitated intracellular activation of ERK1/2 signaling pathway and stimulated migration, invasion and proliferation of all cells. These effects were mediated through XCRl for lymphotactin, CXCRl and CXCR2 for IL-8 and CXCR2 for GRO-a. The cancer cells showed a greater response than normal cells and a direct relationship between receptor expression and migration, invasion and proliferation was observed. XCRl but not lymphotactin was expressed by epithelial cells in normal oral mucosa in vivo and both were expressed and upregulated in inflammation and cancer. Constitutive expression of both XCRl and lymphotactin was found in regional lymph nodes and on metastatic tumours. Lymphotactin mRNA al}d constitutive intracellular protein was detected in normal and cancerous oral cells. Exposure of normal cells to lymphotactin resulted in increased adhesion to fibronectin but not collagen and stimulated MMP-2 and -9 release whereas exposure of cancer cells resulted in increased adhesion to both collagen and fibronectin and stimulated MMP-2, 9 and MMP-7 release. These findings show for the first time that XCRl and its ligand lymphotactin are expressed by epithelial cells in a range of oral conditions and strongly suggest that they play an important role in regulating the behaviour of normal and malignant epithelial cells. Similarly CXCRl and CXCR2 are upregulated on malignant oral cells in vitro and may be important in the biology of oral cancer

    Doubles and Duplicity: Topics in Vienna Around the Long Fin-de-Siècle, 1874-1928.

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    Topic theory was originally proposed as a method of analysing diatonic eighteenth-century music; twentieth-century non-tonal and twelve-tone compositions have largely lain untouched. Monelle’s concept of formulating a historical trace answers the criticisms made of topic theory—its superficial and axiomatic style—by grounding each topic through an investigation into its historical representations. Analyses within this thesis of texted works by Mahler, Schoenberg and Webern create a Viennese topical sphere from which multivalent networks of signification form. Subsequently, links emerge between these networks and the unique political and cultural situation in Vienna, with works of literature, Freud’s psychoanalytical theories, and cultural alienation. Through rhetorical devices, such as irony or satire, their meanings become duplicitous, overturning their traditional associations, in particular, the waltz’s relationship with its predecessor, the Ländler, which reflects the psychoanalytic concept of the double and the primal trauma. In addition, each chapter includes an analysis of a contemporaneous operetta in order to demonstrate that the topics found in the art music of the period were common outside of the intellectual “circle” and perhaps understood by the common theatre audiences. The thesis concludes with works by Webern, demonstrating that despite his revolutionary aphoristic style, the underlying narratives parallel the yearning for nature from Mahler’s generation and critique the conventional portrayal of their feeling of bourgeois alienation and acceptance of society’s constraints rather than their forced derivation from them. By merging the psychological expression of Schoenberg with the cultural representation of Mahler, he combined the radical and the revolutionary and made them conventional. Ultimately, this thesis shows that not only are there topics in the music of twentieth-century Viennese composers, a premise already beginning to be investigated by others, but further that the topics are signifiers of the culture in which they are situated—they are quintessentially Viennese

    Synchronization techniques for femtocell networks

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    Femtocells are small, low-cost and low-power cellular base stations optimized for providing wireless voice and broadband services to customers in a relatively small area. Femtocells are considered to be one of the most promising solutions for future wireless communication with all the advantages that they bring, such as better indoor coverage, higher spectrum efficiency and lower energy consumption to name but a few. However time synchronization for femtocells is very challenging. Femtocells are expected to be equipped with cheap and less accurate crystal oscillators, which cannot satisfy the femtocell synchronization requirements. Moreover, femtocells are deployed in a variety of scenarios with different synchronization requirements and so different synchronization solutions are needed. Existing solutions for some of the femtocell synchronization scenarios either are unsuitable for that particular scenario or suffer serious performance degradation. Therefore, this thesis is focused on investigating the time synchronization problem for femtocells and proposing novel synchronization schemes. This thesis mainly investigated two femtocell synchronization methods: synchronization via backhaul and synchronization via neighbouring cells listening. Femtocell synchronization using the IEEE 1588 protocol, which is seen as the major solution for femtocell synchronization via backhaul, suffers from both asymmetric and random delay problems. An ‘improved IEEE 1588’ scheme is firstly proposed, which utilizes additional packets with different sizes in every IEEE 1588 synchronization process to solve both of these problems. Although the simulation results show that the ‘improved IEEE 1588’ scheme successfully overcomes both aforementioned limitations and yields much better synchronization accuracy than the conventional scheme, it also brings an additional undesirable overhead. Therefore, this thesis also presented a ‘variable-length IEEE 1588’ scheme, where the length of transmitted packets varies periodically. Simulation results show that the synchronization accuracy of the ‘variable-length IEEE 1588’ scheme is similar to the ‘improved IEEE 1588’ scheme but with the advantage of a significantly reduced number of transmitted messages. For femtocell synchronization via neighbouring cells listening, listening to other synchronized femtocells is an important approach, especially for femtocells in SOHO (Small Office and Home Office) area where the femtocells overlap with each other and then form a wireless femtocell network. This thesis carefully examines the time synchronization in wireless femtocell networks. First, the receiver-receiver synchronization (RRS), which has proved efficient in WSNs (wireless sensor networks), is applied in wireless femtocell networks. Two new RRS based synchronization schemes are proposed for different scenarios to ensure better availability. Second, a hybrid synchronization scheme based on wireless IEEE 1588 and RRS is proposed for wireless femtocell networks. The synchronization accuracy and robustness of this hybrid scheme are then evaluated through simulations. Finally, the synchronization scenario where the femtocell is connected to more than one synchronization sources is studied. The basic solution for this scenario is to simply select the best synchronization source when it is available. A two-step weighted multiple linear regression (WMLR) based synchronization scheme is proposed for this case, and it is proved via simulations that it provides better synchronization accuracy and better stability than the basic solution, especially when the two synchronization sources are comparable

    Analysis of Translation Shifts Using Systemic Functional Linguistics: Textuality of news between Japanese and English

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    Translated news are target-oriented and therefore translation shifts are general practice in news translation. However, little research has been conducted to reveal specific shifts involving English and Japanese. With a view to contribute to translator training, the main objective of this project is to establish patterns and motivations of shifts in news translation between English and Japanese. Two types of shifts are investigated. First, information content; additions, deletions or moves, and second, information flow, focusing on Theme. This project is corpus-based and a specialised corpus is compiled, consisting four sub-corpora; original news articles in English and in Japanese, their translations into Japanese and into English. They form parallel corpora as well as comparable. All the data are manually annotated for additions, deletions and moves and also for Theme using the UAM CorpusTool, adopting Systemic Functional Linguistics as framework for analysis. Literature claims most news articles undergo additions, deletions or moves during translation. In my study, additions are more common in English translations while in Japanese translations it is deletions. Rank-wise, below-the-clause shifts occur throughout the text while above-the-clause shifts tend to occur towards the beginning or end of the text. Regarding information flow, general trend of Theme realisation in translated news are similar to that of the TL in general. In addition Theme choice at the beginning of text units moves towards the TL norm, while still showing the ST influence. Particular types of Theme appear exclusively at specific locations in text in Japanese translation, in line with the non-translation Japanese texts. This suggests genre conventions of the TL are at work in Theme choice. News translation into English and Japanese indicates processes of standardisation and ST interference. Shifts concerning information content and flow are motivated by the genre conventions and the target reader’s relevance to and expectations for news articles

    An Investigation of ‘Teacher Identity’ Development in Teachers of Chinese to Speakers of Other Languages (CSOL): A Case Study of Five Teachers in a Confucius Institute in the UK

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    This longitudinal qualitative research explored the developmental process of teacher identity (TI) in five teachers of Chinese to speakers of other languages (CSOL) in a Confucius Institute (CI) in the UK, including the factors which influenced TI formation and change. With teacher identity as a lens, the study also makes recommendations to help promote the professional development (PD) of such teachers. Having conceptualised identity as an ongoing and constantly evolving process (Beijaard et al., 2004), the study adopted participant interviews, both concurrent and retrospective, as the main method for investigating the CSOL teachers’ experiences during the study period and earlier in their lives. The TIs were found to have three main components, namely professional, instructional and cultural identities. Different theoretical frameworks were combined in order to analyse the different facets of CSOL teachers’ identities: the frames perspective (Pennington, 2015; Pennington and Richards, 2016), community of practice theory (Wenger, 1998), the sociocultural perspective (Vygotsky, 1978, 1986, 1987; Holland and Lachicotte, 2007) and the three-stage model of ethnic/cultural identity development (Phinney, 1990, 1993; Lustig and Koester, 2010). The findings on the CSOL teachers’ professional identities were that individuals’ attachments to the teaching profession differed, but there were broadly three kinds of trajectories: 1) a dual connection to teaching and another profession; 2) a strong and sustained commitment to the teaching profession, but punctuated by shifts between fields (e.g. teaching Chinese to speakers of other languages (TCSOL), teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL), early childhood education); and 3) a sustained commitment to TCSOL specifically, with the caveat that across these three profiles teachers were not immune to certain extrinsic forces dampening their commitment. The evolution of the CSOL teachers’ instructional identities was closely linked to changes in their cultural identities, with an observed shift from homogeneity and conformity to Chinese educational traditions to a phase of acculturation (to different extents). Many contextual and individual factors were found to have impacted on CSOL teachers’ identity development and these were classified into four strata: socio-cultural context, institutional, interpersonal and personal factors. The study’s conclusions inform recommendations for identity-focused strategies to improve the education and professional development of CSOL teachers and how they are employed and managed. These include provision for active reflection on cultural identity as part of professional training, ways to build up community and collegiality in order to increase the teachers’ sense of belonging, removing bureaucratic barriers and improving contractual terms. Key Words: Teacher identity, Teaching Chinese to speakers of other languages (TCSOL), Confucius Institut

    Tōkyō's Kyōshō Jūtaku: Engaging Feminist Sensory Creative Practice

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    This transdisciplinary thesis occupies the in-between space of architecture and art and takes the cultural, social, spatial and urban existences of Tōkyō’s kyōshō jūtaku (small house) as a focus point. By concentrating on the fourth generation of houses and architects (2001-), it argues that in order to understand the history, present and future of this housing model, there is a need for anglophone representations to move beyond design obsessed narratives which often rely on stereotypes and fictionalised imaginaries of Japan. To challenge this and offer an alternative lens of looking, the thesis embodies and advocates for situated slowed down architectural research, which centres insider-outsider conversations and intimate experiences of the everyday. Overarchingly, as a way of rejecting the image of the kyōshō jūtaku as a static architectural object, the thesis theoretically works to connect the model to a macro public-private network. Applying Peter Sloterdijk’s theory of foam, the thesis demonstrates how Tōkyō operates as a foamy network which in turn produces individual cells, or houses, which function as micro containers of urban life. To access the influence of the macro foam structure of the city on the individual cells, the thesis extends Atelier Bow-Wow’s methodological approach of zooming which encompasses both zoomed in site encounters and zoomed out ecological perspectives. This is achieved through curating an original methodology coined feminist sensory creative practice (fscp) which has a qualitative foundation of feminist ethics, sensory ethnography and artistic engagement. As a way of revisioning how these houses are understood, the thesis goes one step beyond the macro public environment of Tōkyō and the micro private existences of the houses, by discussing how the kyōshō jūtaku relates to Isozaki Arata’s conceptualisation of Japan-ness. Through the term, Isozaki challenges the foreign gaze and the outsider interpretation of what constitutes a Japanese architectural identity, but in turn creates his own set of limitations. The thesis demonstrates how fourth generation architects are developing nuanced understandings, meanings and practices of Japan-ness which develop the theory in new localised directions. As a way of materially responding to these interpretations, the thesis creates five art works and spatial writings, which aim to challenge how theory can be represented and disseminated

    Multi-Mode Dielectric Resonator Filters

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    Dielectric resonator (DR) filters are widely used in microwave communications due to their small size and high Q-factor. Multi-mode filters offer a further level of miniaturisation. A new multi-mode dielectric resonator filter is presented in this thesis. The TE11d dual-mode DR offers an 11% size reduction ratio compared with a coaxial air-filled filter with the same unloaded Q-factor (Qu) and about 820 MHz spurious separation from the fundamental frequency 1.95 GHz. Two coupling techniques are applied in the TE11d filter configuration. These are: ceramic puck/probe in contact and etching holes through the ceramic puck for probe installation. A 4th order Chebyshev filter dual-mode DR filter has been simulated and fabricated using each technique. The results show a good agreement between the simulation and measurement with half spurious-free window compared with non-loaded cavity. In the etching method, the spurious-free window and the Qu improved compared with unpatterned ceramic puck. The inline structure filter provides an extra improvement in the spurious window base for the planar configuration. Another approach to the dual-mode DR filter has been studied in this work. A HE11 dual-mode with ceramic puck placed at the base of the cavity presents a good size reduction ratio and acceptable spurious window. The mathematical model shows that transmission zeros (TZs) can be generated in all orientation cases of the inter-resonator coupling hole. The control range of the TZs positions was from 40 MHz from the centre frequency. A good agreement was obtained between the simulation and the measurement results. A triple-mode DR filter with two-piece of the ceramic puck in parallel has been presented. The one cavity approach offers a high Q-factor with 400 MHz suppression. A coaxial probe was used for the input/output coupling and the etching hole through the ceramic puck for inter-resonator coupling. A 3rd order Chebyshev DR filter was simulated and fabricated with two TZs on the upper sideband. The practical results show prospects in application of the filter for miniaturised microwave communications

    Prophetic Politics and Spiritual Power: An Ethno-Theological Study of Pentecostal-Charismatic Engagements with Politics in Kenya

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    As a contribution to the study of Pentecostal-Charismatic Christianity and politics in Africa, this study offers an ethnographic and theological analysis of the ways in which Pentecostal-Charismatic churches in Kenya engage “the political”. The thesis presents case studies of three prominent leaders and their ministries, on the basis of which three distinct but interrelated narratives of political engagement are identified and used as the basis for reconstructing Pentecostal-Charismatic political theological thought in Kenya. These narratives are: holiness prophetic, spiritual-dominionist and prosperity-dominionist. The narratives have in common an emerging political theology of altars, which references biblical prophetic concepts of sacred sacrificial space, in which the nation is dedicated anew to God and made holy. The concept of altars is reconstructed as a political theology that draws on Kenyan Pentecostal-Charismatic and indigenous religious understandings of power. The central argument of the thesis is that, since the 1980s, in the contemporary Kenyan religio-political context, Pentecostal-Charismatic churches have not only directly engaged politics, many have also devised political theologies that are couched in the language and idioms of spiritual warfare. These narratives of spiritual warfare are presented as strategies to combat what is perceived to be a battle between God and the devil for the soul of individuals and the nation of Kenya. The narratives of political engagement are reconstructed on the basis of a detailed reading of the ethnographic data collected during eight months of fieldwork in Kenya. The ethnographic approach enabled me to investigate and analyse Pentecostal-Charismatic political engagements and theology from below. I argue that in order to understand the political engagements and the underlying theologies in Kenyan Pentecostal-Charismatic political thought, attention needs to be paid to their prophecies, sermons, and prayers because these are political expressions carried out through a theological rhetoric of spiritual encounter. In contrast to the social scientific and the general African theological literature on Pentecostal-Charismatic political engagements, this study offers a more nuanced understanding of what constitutes the political but also offers an ethnographically informed theological analysis of the politics of spiritual warfare from the point of view of my Pentecostal-Charismatic interlocutors in Kenya

    Theories of determinism in the fiction of Mary Elizabeth Braddon and Wilkie Collins, 1852-74.

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    This thesis concerns Mary Elizabeth Braddon's and Wilkie Collins's fictional representation and employment of theories of biological and environmental determinism. It demonstrates that both authors saw determinism as a theme for literary exploration, and also used it as a means of addressing associated issues debated throughout the Victorian period such as class, gender roles and moral responsibility. The introductory first chapter provides an overview of sensation fiction and concurrent theories of determinism. Part 1 begins with a consideration of Wilkie Collins's use of early- to mid-Victorian psycho-physiological theories, in particular his depiction of monomania. Chapter 2 argues that Collins uses monomania to simultaneously explain and enhance the melodramatic atmosphere of Basil. Chapter 3 shows how his portrayal of monomania in No Name facilitates an engagement with Victorian debates about willpower and personal responsibility. Chapter 4 reveals how in 'Mad Monkton' and Armadnle, Collins's speculations about heredity anticipate, without endorsing, theories of degeneration. The final chapter on Collins discusses how in Man and Wife his artistic change in direction towards "novels with a purpose" is accompanied by a greater emphasis on environmental determinism. Part 2 begins with an analysis of Braddon's under-studied The Lady Lisle which uses ideas of nature and nurture to explore and manipulate class boundaries. Chapter 7 examines John Marchmont's Legacy's interrogation of notions of the "ideal woman", and its assertion that some women are constitutionally incapable of fulfilling such a role. The final chapter concerns Braddon's continued exploration of the connections between determinism and womanliness in the little-known Lost for Love, in which she depicts women as capable of great intellectual achievement if given the correct education. However, this depiction is filtered through a conservative ideology of gender which asserted that women should be primarily trained as companions to men

    Improving the operation and maintenance of CSO structures.

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    Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) structures are commonly used in combined sewer systems and serve as “safety valves” for the pipe system in that they act as a hydraulic control to prevent an overload of the sewer system to prevent surcharge and flooding. They also act to retain the pollution within the sewer system and to retain such pollution, particularly aesthetic solids it has been common practice to incorporate screens into CSO chambers. However, the UK water industry is faced with an insufficient understanding of the way in which these assets perform and of the way in which they may best be managed. To better understand such performance the UK industry has installed a large number of monitoring systems that provide data on the hydraulic performance of the CSO chambers and CSO chambers with screens. This data is currently being used to develop simulation tools with a view to better understanding and providing a more efficient operational strategy, especially in respect of the frequency of maintenance visits. The main objective of this research is to develop and validate novel mathematical techniques based on this hydraulic performance data to simulate, predict and provide a decision support system for CSO asset operation and maintenance. To achieve this objective, three steps were completed. Firstly, data was collected on the types of structure in common use (both CSO’s and screens), their monitored hydraulic performance (chamber water depth), rainfall information and their maintenance requirements (number of pro-active and reactive visits and associated costs). Secondly to use this data to develop and validate a mathematical model, using artificial intelligence techniques in the form of an adaptive linear neural network approach, to predict the hydraulic performance of chambers, which installed with different types of screens in response to rainfall. Thirdly, based on predicted CSO hydraulic performance to utilise a fuzzy logic approach to describe the operational and pro-active maintenance requirements of the different types of CSO structures and screen arrangements. The models were successfully developed using data from one catchment and subsequently applied to a second catchment, again successfully, to test their validity and transferability. The final section of the thesis attempts to describe how the methodologies developed may be incorporated into industry standard and practical CSO asset management
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