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    Use Of Formative Assessment-Based Active Learning By Astronomy Educators Teaching In Live Planetarium Learning Environments

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    Planetariums were created to teach astronomy by simulating motions of the star-filled night sky; however, simply having a virtual reality facility to immerse learners beneath a projected night sky in and of itself is insufficient to automatically ensure student learning occurs. Modern teaching strategies, like active learning, have consistently shown to move students toward deeper understanding in classrooms; yet, active learning approaches seem to be only rarely observed in planetariums. Use of Ruiz-Primo and Furtak’s (2006) coding scheme to define and analyze formative assessment conversations between classroom teachers and students reveals that unless teachers are formally taught how to use formative assessment-based active learning, such approaches are largely absent in classrooms studied. The goal of this 2-phase study was to evaluate the nature of active learning-based formative assessment conversation cycles in the planetarium. The first phase systematically analyzes 26 recordings of live planetarium programs to describe and document presence of active learning teaching strategies. The second phase conducts interviews to determine rewards and barriers to using formative assessment-based active learning in the planetarium. Analysis suggests scant evidence of complete formative assessment conversation cycles, despite that varying degrees of interactivity between the planetarium lecturer and the audience do exist. It is not that planetariansdon’t ask questions, but responses rarely serve to systematically guide instructional decisions aligned with modern pedagogy. Moreover, these planetarians hold a wide range of definitions of what constitutes active learning and often view their primary responsibility as inspiration rather than education, lending explanatory power to why active learning is largely absent

    Study Of Faculty Instructors In Undergraduate Classroom And Planetarium Learning Environments

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    A mixed-methods study exploring the undergraduate planetarium learning environment was conducted during the 2019--2020 academic year at a western American university. Survey responses from university faculty, observational data using the Classroom Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM (COPUS), and faculty interview responses were collected and analyzed to investigate how and why collegiate undergraduates were being instructed in a planetarium environment and how this environment compared to a traditional classroom counterpart. Results suggest that planetarium use is viewed by instructors as an integrated learning experience with the classroom environment, with affective learning outcomes in the planetarium complemented by cognitive learning outcomes in the classroom. COPUS observations of planetarium instruction show broad similarity to classroom instruction; however, reductionsin active-learning behavior archetypes measured in the planetarium environment suggest a trade-off between interactive learning strategies and visually immersive content presentation. Implications concerning the collegiate planetarium environment and future work are discussed

    EDITOR’S NOTE: Identifying An Education Research Study’s Limitations

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    Discipline-based science education research studies face many limitations. One is that study-participants are human beings and apt to be inconsistent in how they respond to educational interventions—even high quality and highly effective ones. The second is that researchers themselves are human and well poised to use study designs and data analysis approaches that yield the most desired results. In the end, simply having “too small a sample size” is a short-sighted limitation. It is author’s intellectually pursuing the full range of possible limitations of a study that new insights and new experimental designs can be intellectually created. The discussion of limitations should bring forth ideas and next steps pathways for researchers to follow, making articles more of a conversation and intellectual stimulation of a research trajectory rather than an abrupt ending to a study

    Audit Quality And Earnings Management: Evidence From Shanghai Stock Market In China

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    The prior studies report that the global big4 audit firms (Big4) generally provide higher quality audit services compared to the local audit firms, but inconsistent result on audit quality of the Big4 audit firms was observed in the Chinese stock market. We believe that it may be not appropriate to distinguish high or low audit quality as separating the Big4 and non-Big4 because the market share of the Big4 and non-Big4 on Shanghai stock market is considerably lower than that of other countries. Therefore, we use the measure of Chinese big10 audit firms (Big10) as higher audit quality and examine the association with the level of earnings management using the sample of Shanghai Stock Market listed companies in China. From the empirical tests, we find that the Big10 provide better audit service to prevent their clients’ earnings management than non-Big10 audit firms. The finding of this study demonstrates the Big10 provide differentiated audit service from non-Big10 audit firms on Shanghai stock market in China

    Annual Report Readability And Corporate Bankruptcy

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    This study investigates the relationship between a firm’s annual report readability and its probability of bankruptcy. Findings show that firms with a larger 10-K file size have a higher probability of bankruptcy. More specifically, we suggest that there is a curvilinear relationship between annual report readability and bankruptcy probability. However, this relation is not significant for small firms. We further suggest that annual report readability has incremental power in predicting corporate bankruptcy. While prior accounting and finance research mainly used financial and accounting ratios as predictive variables of firm bankruptcy, we add a new non-financial predictive variable to these models

    Relational Leadership Within Business Partnerships In India: A Process Framework

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    Inter-organizational partnerships are an essential mechanism for corporations to access resources, particularly in emerging markets. This study is concerned with the steps relating to how multinational corporations in India create, develop, and evaluate their partnerships based on relationships. In the context of business-to-business partnerships, the researchers aim to (i) create a relational leadership process framework for how these relationships are built, and (ii) analyze if relational governance through relational leadership is complementary or rather a substitute to formal contracts in the context of such business-to-business partnerships. A case study-based research design is employed to explore relational leadership in business partnerships in India, thereby incorporating case studies based on interviews from nine internationally operating corporations. A process framework for relational leadership with six distinct steps on how to develop business partnerships in India was developed. Furthermore, the researchers found that the framework complements the relational governance processes supported by relational leadership and formal contracts when engaging in business partnerships in India. The study’s main aim was to contribute to the current theory in the emergent field of relational leadership. Practitioners responsible for partnership building among corporations can gain insights from the framework into the application of relational leadership. The results indicate that corporations can maintain long-term partnerships if specific relational governance mechanisms mainly supported by the application of relational leadership are in place

    Positive Influence Of Education Partnerships For Teaching Integrated STEM Through Drone Competition

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    While enhancing the STEM career pipeline through improved quality and quantity of STEM teaching available to an ever-widening diversity is K-12 students is garnering significant attention across the U.S., there lacks widely adopted implementation and support models that efficiently make full advantage of the vast human and fiscal resources available. A wide swath of STEM education stake-holding partners—schools, businesses, government agencies, non-profit organizations, and institutions of higher education—frequently are compelled to provide support and guidance but lack easy to follow pathways in order to do so. This research study describes and documents a unique vehicle to bring often disparate partners to a unified effort under the banner of drone education designed to improve STEM and technology-oriented career pathways. Identified barriers that the collaborative partnership helped overcome to ensure success include providing: modest start-up costs for modern high-tech equipment for participating schools (drones); an infrastructure for leveraging the consistently successful approach to providing regional and statewide competitive events (precision drone flight and knowledge competitions); large-scale buildings and facilities to host competitive festivals and events (e.g., indoor sports stadiums); and K-12 teacher professional development programs along with classroom-ready instructional materials needed to nurture and sustain student drone education programs

    Pooled Testing: Determining The Optimum Pool Size To Minimize The Total Number Of Tests

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    In light of the rapidly spreading COVID-19 virus, the FDA has suggested pooling of samples in order to reduce the cost of testing a large population. Under this approach, several samples are pooled, and the pooled samples are first tested. If the pool tests negative, then the lab would have successfully tested many samples while consuming only the resources needed for a single test. If the pooled sample tests positive, then each sample that comprised the pool is individually tested. In this context, an important question for people in the field is “Given a certain overall infection rate among the population, what is the optimum pool size so that we can minimize the overall number of tests for a given number of individual samples?” In this paper, we derive this number both empirically and analytically. We also address the related question “Given a certain pool size, what is the maximum infection rate for which we can still gain in terms of the number of tests?

    Profiling Goat Farm Enterprises Under The Prism Of Sustainability: The Role Of Financial Ratios, Socio-Demographic Characteristics And The Waste Management In Goat Enterprises

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    Sustainable livestock farming is a hot issue worldwide. Last decade there is an intense transformation that affect all aspects of the sector like economic, social and environmental. This transformation has to deal with the increasing market globalization, the changes in Common Agriculture Policy and the new social awareness in environmental issues. The aim of this study is to profile and classify goat farms according to their performance using farm-level data that concerns economic, social and environmental sustainability. A combination of multivariate analysis techniques, such as Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were developed for the aggregation of synthetic indicators and for the creation of farm typologies. According to results, Greek goat farming achieves a low performance in almost all pillars of sustainability, but if the sector adopt sustainable practices there is the margin to become more elastic and competitive

    Working Condition On Employee Quality Of Life Outcome: Perspectives From Pandemic COVID-19

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    During the COVID-19 Pandemic, there were changes in work patterns such as work from home. The impact of the change in work from home patterns needs to be of concern to the organization. Working conditions that are not conducive to overcoming these changes in work patterns can lead to deviance in employee behavior due to mental health. This study investigates the effect of working conditions on the quality of life of employees. The research method used a survey approach with non-parametric analysis techniques. It is testing using a sample of 201 employees of respondents with a simple random sampling technique in local governments that handle transportation problems in West Bandung regency. The results indicated a significant influence of the work environment on the quality of life of employees. This result indicates that the presence of a work environment that is less conducive has a significant impact on the quality of life of employees, as indicated by the presence of anxiety and depression. The research implication shows that it is necessary to minimize existing work-related mental health by managing an efficient work environment

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