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    Potato product factory workers, circa 1980

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    This unidentified photo of factory workers was taken around 1980. Five women stand along an assembly line filling packages with frozen potato products, what appear to be hash brown patties. They wear rubber gloves, hair coverings, and smocks or aprons. Four of them wear glasses.

    Infographic: Progress in Oral Health Care and Dental Hygiene Among North Dakota Third Grade Students: 2014-2022

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    More than half of the third-grade students in North Dakota had dental sealants on their back teeth in the most recent school year

    Third Street South

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    Undated photograph of Third Street South. Numerous automobiles are parked in front of businesses, including the Northern State Power Company and the O\u27Dell Company, which sold dry goods and ladies fashions. (from 1925 city directory)

    Course Lecture: Government resources as a part of scholarly communication

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    The second lecture in a 5-part series of lectures on scholarly communication, this lecture situates government publications and public use datasets as one facet of scholarly communication and evidence based practice via discussion of the structure of the United States government and related vocabulary, as well as activities in which learners explore and then teach the class about various data tools. This lecture was designed for the University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences Occupational Therapy Doctorate Program. This lecture is appropriate for adult and emerging adult learners with very little or basic understandings of scholarly communication, government publication, datasets, and the appropriate use of diverse sources of information. Learning objectives: Identify and discuss the role of the structure of government info-collection on the body of information (ACRL HSIG 5.1) Analyze differences between various types of government information and data (ACRL HSIG 1.2) Identify and discuss the role of the structure of government info-collection on the body of information. (ACRL HSIG 5.1) Evaluate use and efficacy of government info within a local healthcare and a larger OT practice context. (ACRL HSIG 5.1

    Public Library

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    Undated postcard of the Grand Forks Public Library. Andrew Carnegie donated funds for the Grand Forks Public Library in 1901. The building opened in 1903 and was located at the junction of Alpha Avenue (First Avenue North) and 5th Street North.

    Infographic: Equity Opportunities: Race and Ethnicity: Need For Dental Care Among Third Grade Students In North Dakota

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    Third grade students who are American Indian or Black/African American have a significantly higher need for early or urgent dental care than those who are non-Hispanic white. Those who are American Indian or Hispanic/Latinx have a significantly higher rate of rampant decay than those who are non-Hispanic white

    Cross-country skiing in a residential neighborhood, circa late 1970s.

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    A man in light winter clothing is cross-country skiing in a residential neighborhood. In the foreground, coniferous trees obscure some of the view. In the background two vehicles are parked in a driveway, one of which appears to be a 1974 Oldsmobile Cutlass S Coupe. Further back is a house with roughcast or pebbledash exterior walls, white framed windows, and a one-stall garage.

    Infographic: Oral Health of North Dakota’s Third Grade Students: Comparing to National Trends

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    Integrated Petrophysical Evaluation and Rock Physics Modeling of Broom Creek Deep Saline Aquifer for Geological CO2 Storage

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    Fossil fuels, such as coal and hydrocarbons, are major drivers of global warming and are primarily responsible for worldwide greenhouse gas emissions, including carbon dioxide CO2. The storage of CO2 in deep saline reservoirs is acknowledged as one of the top practical and promising methods to reduce CO2 emissions and meet climate goals. The North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC) recently approved the fourth Class VI permit for a carbon capture and storage project in the Williston basin of North Dakota for the geological CO2 storage in the Broom Creek formation. The current research aimed to conduct a comprehensive petrophysical characterization and rock physics modeling of the Broom Creek deep saline reservoir to unravel the mineralogical distribution and to understand the variations in petrophysical and elastic properties across the formation. This study utilized geophysical well logs, routine core analysis, and advanced core analysis to evaluate the Broom Creek formation. Multimineral petrophysical analysis calibrated with X-ray diffraction results reveals that this formation primarily comprises highly porous clean sandstone intervals with low-porosity interspersed with dolomite, anhydrite, and silt/clay layers. The formation exhibits varying porosities up to 0.3 and Klinkenberg air permeabilities up to ∼2600 mD. The formation water resistivity using Archie’s equation is approximately 0.055 ohm-m at 150 °F, corresponding to around 63,000 ppm NaCl salinity, which is consistent with prior data. The pore throat distribution in the samples from clean sandstone intervals is primarily situated in the macro-mega scales. However, the presence of anhydrite and dolomite impedes both porosity and pore throat sizes. The accurate prediction of effective elastic properties was achieved by developing a rock physics template. Dry rock moduli were modeled using Hill’s average, while Berryman’s self-consistent scheme was employed for modeling saturated moduli

    Enhancing Resin Composite Using Nanoparticle Embedded Jute Fiber And Exploring Plant Polymer For Biomedical Applications

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    The severe detrimental effect of nondegradable and toxic synthetic materials on the environment in the last couple of decades has led researchers to focus more on eco-friendly products such as building materials, medical instruments, sports, textile, and automobile industries. Lignocellulosic plants and their fibers are the first choices for both material and biological science researchers due to their chemical structure, abundance, low cost, and nontoxic nature. These plants are composed of three major biopolymers such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose is the most abundant polymer. In the recent past natural fibers have attracted substantial importance as potential structural materials after the removal of noncellulosic biopolymers (hemicellulose and lignin). In recent years, nanomaterials have been incorporated into these natural fibers to enhance their performance as reinforcement agents in composites. Hemicellulose, on the other hand, is the second most abundant biopolymer present in the lignocellulosic fibers. Among the hemicelluloses present in these lignocellulosic fibers Arabinoxylan (AX) is a non-toxic, branched polymer with high viscosity and heat capacity. These properties make it appealing to researchers in biological fields. the branched polymeric structure of AX makes it suitable for targeted drug delivery systems research, due to its high viscosity and nontoxic nature it is also a good resource for scaffold preparation for cancer cell line growth. AX can form a gel at ambient temperature and can retain its structure even in high temperatures due to its high heat capacity this particular property makes it a well-suited candidate in 3-dimension (3D) bioprinting as life support. This thesis will focus both on developing natural fiber-based composites using nanomaterials to create a sustainable, durable, and stronger composite, and preparing a soft scaffold for breast cancer cell line growth using plant-based polymer.In the first project, silica nanoparticle-embedded jute fiber-reinforced composites were prepared. Jute fibers were washed with water to remove dust particles and then dried in sunlight for three days. After that, it was dried again at 80 °C in an oven for constant weight to prepare composites. The dried fibers were modified by chemical treatment with sodium hydroxide solution at varying concentrations under ambient conditions. The treated and untreated fibers were reinforced with different thermosetting resins to prepare composites by a molding technique. Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) were synthesized using the Stöber method; 50 mL of absolute ethanol was mixed with 50 mL of distilled water and 5 mL of conc. ammonium hydroxide was added to the mixture, followed by adding 10 mL of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). The treated jute fiber was dipped in 36 % (3-chloro-2hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium chloride (CHPTAC) solution in a water bath at 60 °C with continuous agitation for a cationization reaction. During the cationization, 15 % NaOH was added to cationized the fiber in three steps at an interval of 5 min, and the mixture was stirred again for 15 min. The cationized jute fiber was removed from the bath, rinsed several times with water, neutralized, and dried at ambient temperatures. The cationized jute fiber was introduced in the synthesized nano-silica to adsorb SiNPs. Then, the SiNPs reinforced cationized jute fibers were dried in a dark place at room temperature. These SiNPs impregnated fibers were reinforced with thermosetting resin to prepare composites by the hand molding technique. The properties of these prepared composites were characterized by tensile strength, elongation at break, FT-IR, SEM, XRD, etc. In the third chapter, AX was extracted from wheat bran, cattail, and jute by a modified method developed by Lopez et al. 100 g wheat bran was mixed with 1 L of 4.5 % potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution and stirred at 100 °C for 2 h. The resultant slurry was then centrifuged for 20 min at 8500 rpm, and the supernatant was collected. Twice the volume of 95 % ethanol was added to the collected supernatant, and the suspension was stored at 4 °C for 16 h to ensure complete precipitation of AX. The precipitant was collected by centrifugation and was washed thoroughly with distilled water to remove ethanol and excess KOH. Subsequently, the obtained AX was dried in a vacuum oven at 40 °C for 24 h and was lyophilized at −50 °C using a freeze-dryer. To prepare the scaffold for cell culture, 40 gm/mL of AX and hyaluronic acid (HA) were mixed separately in water at a rate of 40 mg/mL and the mixture was left in a shaker for 24 h. The scaffolds were prepared by combining the AX and HA solutions in different ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4). The cancer cell line, MDA MB 231 was added to the scaffolds, and their growth and proliferation were observed for several days. Among all scaffolds, jute stick AX showed promising results


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