Bradford Scholars

    Sustainable supply chains: a framework for environmental scanning practices

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    YesPurpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the empirical reality of environmental scanning practices in sustainable supply chain management contexts. In particular it tests and extends a conceptual framework proposed by Fabbe-Costes et al. (2011). Design and methodology: The empirical data for this research were obtained from 45 semi-structured interviews with key informants, combined with a discussion of the main results with a focus group of supply chain experts. These data are compared with the literature and brought to bear on the framework. Findings - The research finds both breadth and depth in the scope of sustainability scanning practices of the respondents and provides evidence of multi-level scanning, with all respondents describing scanning activity at the societal level. It further demonstrates the adoption of multiple and diverse scanning targets at all levels in the conceptual framework. The articulation and ranking of scanning targets for sustainable SCM at all levels informs the development of priorities for practice. The paper also makes some observations about the boundaries of the scanning process. Practical implications: The results provide managers with guidance about what to scan in sustainable supply chain contexts. The validated framework can serve as a practical tool to assist managers with the organization and prioritization of their environmental scanning activities. Originality/Value: The paper is among the first to address the role of environmental scanning in sustainable supply chain contexts. It highlights the need for a multi-level framework for such scanning activities and opens up a debate about their implementation

    Modelling the combustion in a dual fuel HCCI engine. Investigation of knock, compression ratio, equivalence ratio and timing in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine with natural gas and diesel fuels using modelling and simulation.

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    This thesis is about modelling of the combustion and emissions of dual fuel HCCI engines for design of “engine combustion system”. For modelling the combustion first the laminar flamelet model and a hybrid Lagrangian / Eulerian method are developed and implemented to provide a framework for incorporating detailed chemical kinetics. This model can be applied to an engine for the validation of the chemical kinetic mechanism. The chemical kinetics, reaction rates and their equations lead to a certain formula for which the coefficients can be obtained from different sources, such as NASA polynomials [1]. This is followed by study of the simulation results and significant findings. Finally, for investigation of the knock phenomenon some characteristics such as compression ratio, fuel equivalence ratio, spark timing and their effects on the performance of an engine are examined and discussed. The OH radical concentration (which is the main factor for production of knock) is evaluated with regard to adjustment of the above mentioned characteristic parameters. In the second part of this work the specification of the sample engine is given and the results obtained from simulation are compared with experimental results for this sample engine, in order to validate the method applied in AVL Fire software. This method is used to investigate and optimize the effects of parameters such as inlet temperature, fuels ratio, diesel fuel injection timing, engine RPM and EGR on combustion in a dual fuel HCCI engine. For modelling the dual fuel HCCI engine AVL FIRE software is applied to simulate the combustion and study the optimization of a combustion chamber design. The findings for the dual fuel HCCI engine show that the mixture of methane and diesel fuel has a great influence on an engine's power and emissions. Inlet air temperature has also a significant role in the start of combustion so that inlet temperature is a factor in auto-ignition. With an increase of methane fuel, the burning process will be more rapid and oxidation becomes more complete. As a result, the amounts of CO and HC emissions decrease remarkably. With an increase of premixed ratio beyond a certain amount, NOX emissions decrease. With pressure increases markedly and at high RPM, knock phenomenon is observed in HCCI combustion

    Placing the library at the heart of plagiarism prevention: The University of Bradford experience.

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    yesPlagiarism is a vexed issue for Higher Education, affecting student transition, retention and attainment. This paper reports on two initiatives from the University of Bradford library aimed at reducing student plagiarism. The first initiative is an intensive course for students who have contravened plagiarism regulations. The second course introduces new students to the concepts surrounding plagiarism with the aim to prevent plagiarism breaches. Since the Plagiarism Avoidance for New Students course was introduced there has been a significant drop in students referred to the disciplinary programme. This paper discusses the background to both courses and the challenges of implementation

    Valuing and managing brands: An internal accounting perspective. An empirical investigation of attitudes to internal brand valuation and organisational and behavioural implications associated with the way that the internal brand management accounting system is operated.

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    This thesis is concerned with accounting for the brand management function. Two distinct perspectives are taken: the first derives from aspects of organisational and behavioural accounting research, and the second concerns organisational implications of brand valuation. Both perspectives were initially approached by means of exploratory interviews and a literature review. Hypotheses pertaining to the first perspective were analysed via survey data collected in nine strongly-branded, fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) companies. Propositions concerned with the implications of brand valuation were developed and used as the basis for measuring attitudes to brand valuation. A questionnaire concerned with brand valuation attitudes was administered to senior-ranking officials in strongly-branded, FMCG companies. The final methodological phase, for both perspectives, involved a case study conducted in a strongly-branded, FMCG company. Significant findings arising from this study include: 1) Managers who see their company as being short-termist, hold more positive attitudes to brand valuation. 2) Marketing-orientated managers are more favourably disposed to brand valuation than accounting-orientated managers. 3) Organisational benefits arising from brand valuation are more strategically, than operationally, orientated. 4) Brand manager budget participation is significantly negatively-related to job-related tension, and positivelyrelated to trust in superior and attitude to reliance on accounting performance measures. 5) Budget participation is more effective in reducing jobrelated tension in situations of high, compared to low, task uncertainty situations. 6) Reliance on a brand manager's accounting performance is positively related to brand manager performance and motivation, and negatively associated with job-related tension

    Excavations and survey at Coats Hill, near Moffat, 1990-1

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    This report describes the results of the survey and sample excavations of small cairns, annular structures and other remains on Coats Hill, near Moffat. The difficulties of assessing the dates and functions of certain of the structures are discussed. The project formed part of the archaeological studies for the North Western Ethylene Pipeline (NWEP) Project for Shell Chemicals UK Ltd, which wholly funded the archaeological work and the publication of this report

    A Preliminary Examination of Risk in the Pharmaceutical Supply Chain (PSC) in the National Health Service (NHS)

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    YesThe effective management of pharmaceuticals in the National Health Service (NHS) is critical to patient welfare thus any risks attached to this must be identified and controlled. At a very basic level, risks in the pharmaceutical supply chain are associated with product discontinuity, product shortages, poor performance, patient safety/dispensing errors, and technological errors (causing stock shortages in pharmacies) to name but a few, all of which incur risk through disruption to the system. Current indications suggest that the pharmaceutical industry and NHS practitioners alike have their concerns as to the use of generic supply chain strategies in association with what is perceived to be a specialist product (pharmaceuticals). The aim of the study undertaken was to gain a more realistic understanding of the nature and prevalence of risk in the Pharmaceutical Supply Chain (PSC) to be used as a basis for a more rigorous research project incorporating in-vestigation in the UK, Europe and USA. Data was collected via a workshop forum held in November 2005. The outputs of the workshop indicated that there were thirty-five prevalent risks. The risks were rated using risk assessment catego-ries such as impact, occurrence and controllability. The findings indicated that the risks identified are similar to those prevalent in industrial supply chains, regardless of the idiosyncrasies of pharmaceuticals. However, the group consen-sus was that caution must be applied in how such risks are addressed, as there are aspects of the product that highlight its uniqueness e.g. criticality

    BME sex offenders in prison: the problem of participation in offending behaviour groupwork programmes: a tripartite model of understanding

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    This paper addresses the under representation of Black and minority ethnic (BME) sex offenders in the sex offender treatment programme (SOTP) of the prisons of England and Wales. The proportional over representation of BME men in the male sex offender population of the prisons of England and Wales has been noted for at least ten years. Similarly the under representation of BME sex offenders in prison treatment programmes has been a cause for concern during the last decade. This paper presents current demographic data relating to male BME sex offenders in the prisons of England and Wales. The paper draws together a wide range of social and cultural theories to develop a tripartite model for understanding the dynamics underlying the non-participation of BM

    Database Metadata Requirements for Automated Web Development. A case study using PHP.

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    The Web has come a long way. It started as a distributed document repository and quickly became the spring board for a new type of application. Propped on top of the original HTML+HTTP architecture, this new application platform shifted the way the architecture was used so that commands and functionality were embedded in the form data of Web requests rather than in the HTTP command conveying the request. This approach enabled Web requests to convey any type of data, not just document operations. This is occurring because the Web provides such a powerful platform on which to create applications. This is occurring because web development methods are still evolving toward the structure and stability required taking on this enormous new role. As the needs of developers change, certain themes that arise more frequently than others become embedded into new environments to support those needs. Until recently, Web application programming has largely been done with a set of keywords and metaphors developed long before the Web became a popular place to program. APIs have been developed to support Web specific features, but they are no replacement for fundamental changes in the programming environment itself. The growth of Web applications requires a new type of programming designed specifically for the needs of the Web. This thesis aims to contribute towards the development of an abstract framework to generate abstract and dynamic Web user interfaces that are not developed to a specific platform. To meet this aim, this thesis suggests a general implementation of a prototype system that uses the information in database metadata in conjunction with PHP. Database metadata is richer in providing the information needed to build dynamic user interfaces. This thesis uses PHP and the abstract library ADOdb to provide us with a generalised database metadata based prototype. PHP does not have any restrictions on accessing and extracting database metadata from numerous database management systems. As a result, PHP and relational database were used to build the proposed framework. Additionally, ADOdb was used to link the two mentioned technologies. The implemented framework in this thesis demonstrates that it is possible to generate different automatic Web entry forms that are not specific at any platform

    International Conflict Resolution: Some Critiques and a Response

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    Replication of mixing achieved in large co-rotating screw extruder using a novel laboratory 10-100g minimixer

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    YesWhen compounding polymers with additives to develop materials at specifications (colouring plastics is the simplest example), the difficulties is in getting the formulation right the first time. Also, when developing completely new materials such as in nanotechnology applications, there is a need to do the initial trials safely and with as small quantities as possible to enable a wide range of experimentation. Wiith traditional applications, often the initial compounding formulation is done using small single or twin screw extruders but with machines that have a fair output to instruct the large scale operation. This step is costly in material wastage and time but more importantly it often does not provide the right formulation which in turn results in bigger wastage cost at the industrial scale before the right formulation is eventually obtained. With the very new material formulations, any reduction in cost of development is always essential. With these aims in mind, we have developed a new minimixer capable of handling tiny quantities of order 10-100g but the minimixer is capable of reproducing the very high mixing conditions experienced in large machines. This invention provides a new opportunity to develop new products quickly, safely and cheaply. The application is not restricted to polymers and can be extended to other soft materials. It has also other spin-offs as a research tool for studying mixing and developing new, more efficient, mixing flows. In this paper we explain the principle of operation we have engineered to produce such intense mixing. Basically, the device is based on combining two opposing flows: a single screw extruder circulation flow with a twin screw extruder mixing flow. The mixing is carried out as a batch but on its completion, the single screw extruder flow is reversed and becomes co-current with the twin extruder flow to enable the discharging of the batch through a die. In the paper we present mixing data obtained with various polymer-additive combinations tested in the minimixer under various conditions of screw speeds, mixing times and temperatures and at the larger scale to underpin the operation of this novel mixer. The quality of mixing of the extrudate was measured using a variety of methods depending on applications: using image analysis of microtome sections of the extrudate or of blown film samples produced from the formulations or measuring electrical properties
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