Bradford Scholars

    Tracing the dynamic life story of a Bronze Age Female

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    YesAncient human mobility at the individual level is conventionally studied by the diverse application of suitable techniques (e.g. aDNA, radiogenic strontium isotopes, as well as oxygen and lead isotopes) to either hard and/or soft tissues. However, the limited preservation of coexisting hard and soft human tissues hampers the possibilities of investigating high-resolution diachronic mobility periods in the life of a single individual. Here, we present the results of a multidisciplinary study of an exceptionally well preserved circa 3.400-year old Danish Bronze Age female find, known as the Egtved Girl. We applied biomolecular, biochemical and geochemical analyses to reconstruct her mobility and diet. We demonstrate that she originated from a place outside present day Denmark (the island of Bornholm excluded), and that she travelled back and forth over large distances during the final months of her life, while consuming a terrestrial diet with intervals of reduced protein intake. We also provide evidence that all her garments were made of non-locally produced wool. Our study advocates the huge potential of combining biomolecular and biogeochemical provenance tracer analyses to hard and soft tissues of a single ancient individual for the reconstruction of high-resolution human mobility.The Danish National Research Foundation; The Carlsberg Foundation, L'Oreal Denmark-UNESCO; The ERC agreement no. 26944

    Nuclear weapons and British defence policy. An examination of nuclear aspects of British foreign and defence policy 1940-1990.

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    This thesis is an attempt to understand the role of nuclear weapons in Britain's defence and foreign policies. It works from the assumption that decisions in relation to nuclear weapons, can only be understood in the context of a broader overview of the British state's policies since the 1940's. In turn Britain's nuclear policies have made a decisive impact on defence policy as a whole and have had an important effect on international developments. It is hoped that this thesis will contribute to a better-understanding of the causes and effects of the nuclear weapons policies adopted by the UK since the 19401s. The thesis will focus on the politics and political economy of nuclear weapons and British defence policy. This central concern has required that a number of other important aspects of the subject have been given only peripheral consideration. The thesis does not attempt to provide a detailed technological history of Britain's nuclear force. Nor is it intended to provide particular new insights on the nuclear decisionmaking process. Rather it seeks to explore the underlying factors which have shaped both the technology and the perceptions of decision-makers. There is no shortage of historical accounts of Britain's nuclear force. The unique contribution which it is hoped that this thesis makes, however, does not lie so much in its subject matter as in the way that this subject matter is approached. In my view that approach is sufficiently different from those of previous works in this area as to be both original and of some interest to other scholars in this field.Rowntrees Memorial Trus

    Crime and Capitalism in Kosovo¿s Transformation.

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    yesIn the context of a fragile political and security situation, an ambiguous legal constitutional status and an imprecise and contested balance of power between international `protection¿ and local ownership, academic and practitioner strategies in Kosovo have emphasized human protection, military security and public law and order. However, Kosovo is also a site of contention between economic norms. On the one hand, the external agencies have attempted to impose a neoliberal economic model, rooted in the 1989 Washington consensus on developmentalism. On the other hand, Kosovars have clung to clientism, shadow economic activities and resistance to centrally-audited exchange

    Investigating the use of coca and other psychoactive plants in Pre-Columbian mummies from Chile and Peru. An analytical investigation into the feasibility of testing ancient hair for drug compounds.

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    Psychoactive plants have played a significant role in Andean cultures for millennia. Whilst there is evidence of the importance of psychoactive plants in the Andean archaeological record, none of these are direct proof that these culturally significant plants were used by ancient Andean populations. This project utilised liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to investigate the use of psychoactive plants in individuals from cemetery sites in Chile and Peru by analysing hair specimens for a variety of psychoactive compounds. Hair specimens from 46 individuals buried at cemetery sites in the Azapa Valley (northern Chile) belonging to the Cabuza culture (c AD 300 ¿ 1000) indicated around half of these people ingested coca, as evidenced by the detection of BZE in hair specimens. Two individuals from this population tested positive for bufotenine, the main alkaloid in Anadenanthera snuff. There is a specific material culture associated with snuffing. These findings confirm Anadenanthera was consumed in the Azapa Valley. The 11 individuals from Peru came from the necropolis at Puruchuco-Huaquerones in the Rímac valley near Lima. These individuals belonged to the Ichma culture, but would have been under Inca imperial control during the Late Horizon. Although only a small sample, two-thirds tested positive for BZE, suggestive that access to coca was widespread. This project presents a synthesis of the archaeological evidence for the use of various psychoactive plants in Andes. Also presented is the first report of the detection of bufotenine in ancient hair samples and additional data contributing to the understanding of the use of coca in the Andes.Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC). Andy Jagger and Francis Raymond Hudson funds at the University of Bradfor

    Estimation of LRD present in H.264 video traces using wavelet analysis and proving the paramount of H.264 using OPF technique in wi-fi environment.

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    While there has always been a tremendous demand for streaming video over Wireless networks, the nature of the application still presents some challenging issues. These applications that transmit coded video sequence data over best-effort networks like the Internet, the application must cope with the changing network behaviour; especially, the source encoder rate should be controlled based on feedback from a channel estimator that explores the network intermittently. The arrival of powerful video compression techniques such as H.264, which advance in networking and telecommunications, opened up a whole new frontier for multimedia communications. The aim of this research is to transmit the H.264 coded video frames in the wireless network with maximum reliability and in a very efficient manner. When the H.264 encoded video sequences are to be transmitted through wireless network, it faces major difficulties in reaching the destination. The characteristics of H.264 video coded sequences are studied fully and their capability of transmitting in wireless networks are examined and a new approach called Optimal Packet Fragmentation (OPF) is framed and the H.264 coded sequences are tested in the wireless simulated environment. This research has three major studies involved in it. First part of the research has the study about Long Range Dependence (LRD) and the ways by which the self-similarity can be estimated. For estimating the LRD a few studies are carried out and Wavelet-based estimator is selected for the research because Wavelets incarcerate both time and frequency features in the data and regularly provides a more affluent picture than the classical Fourier analysis. The Wavelet used to estimate the self-similarity by using the variable called Hurst Parameter. Hurst Parameter tells the researcher about how a data can behave inside the transmitted network. This Hurst Parameter should be calculated for a more reliable transmission in the wireless network. The second part of the research deals with MPEG-4 and H.264 encoder. The study is carried out to prove which encoder is superior to the other. We need to know which encoder can provide excellent Quality of Service (QoS) and reliability. This study proves with the help of Hurst parameter that H.264 is superior to MPEG-4. The third part of the study is the vital part in this research; it deals with the H.264 video coded frames that are segmented into optimal packet size in the MAC Layer for an efficient and more reliable transfer in the wireless network. Finally the H.264 encoded video frames incorporated with the Optimal Packet Fragmentation are tested in the NS-2 wireless simulated network. The research proves the superiority of H.264 video encoder and OPF¿s master class

    Measuring poly(acrylamide) flocculants in fresh water using inter-polymer complex formation

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    YesA novel detection method for poly(acrylamide) flocculants was developed using interpolymer complexation between flocculants and a probe (poly(acrylic acid-co-acenaphthylene)). This detection method was tested in fresh water situations and found to be robust against a range of contaminants; additionally it was capable of detecting levels of flocculant dosing below 1 mg l−1. This method is remarkably fast and requires little sample modification compared to existing methods of detection

    The roles of exotic and native tree species in preventing desertification and enhancing degraded land restoration in the north east of Libya. Reciprocal effects of environmental factors and plantation forestry on each other, assessed by observations on growth and reproductive success of relevant tree species, and environmental factors analysed using multivariate statistics.

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    Today's arid and semi-arid zones of the Mediterranean are affected by desertification, resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities such as overcultivation, overgrazing and deforestation. Afforestation programs are one of the most effective means in preventing desertification. For many years Libya has had afforestation programs in order to restore degraded land and in response to rapid desert encroachment in the north east of Libya, in the area called the Jabal Akhdar (Green Mountain), which has been investigated in this study. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relative roles of exotic compared to native tree species in preventing desertification and enhancing degraded land restoration in the Jabal Akhdar. The effect of environmental factors on exotic compared to native tree species have been assessed by observations on growth and reproductive success of the species, including variables of stocking rate, trunk diameter, tree height, crown diameter, tree coverage, natural mortality, felling and seedling regeneration, as well as calculated variables, derived from these measurements. The effects of methods and age of afforestation on the promotion of biological diversity have been investigated using the Shannon-Wiener diversity index. The effects of tree species on soil depth have also been investigated. Multivariate statistical analyses of site, species and environmental data, using both cluster analyses and factor analyses have been performed, with the aim of determining what is influencing the species, crops or differentiating between the sites, based on soil depth, angle of slope, altitude, rainfall and air temperature values. Pinus halepensis showed success in its growth and regeneration, particularly at higher altitudes and steeper slopes. Cupressus sempervirens was successful in growth and regeneration in the mountains. The exotic Eucalyptus gomphocephala was very successful in its growth, but did not regenerate well, while the exotic Acacia cyanophylla trees had a failure of both growth and regeneration. E. gomphocephala species appeared to favour relativley the flatter (non-mountain) sites, while A. Cyanophylla appeared to favour relativly the mountain sites. All the species responded positively to greater rainfall and deep soil, but they differed in where they were most likely to be successful. Environmental factors such as climate, terrain and soil are the main determinants of species distribution in the study area, in addition to their impact on the growth of the main trees. There appeared not to be any relationship between biodiversity and whether the main trees were native or exotic, and only P. halepensis showed any negative effect on the abundance of shrubs. There was greater diversity of trees and shrubs generally at the younger sites than the old sites. The present study emphasises the current mismanagement of planted forests, particularly with overgrazing contributing to desertification, through preventing tree growth and eliminating most sapling regeneration. This study concludes by making recommendations for more effective choice of tree species to plant, and for subsequent management to improve afforestation programmes in the Jabal Akhdar area.The Libyan Higher Education Ministr

    Binge drinking behaviour, attitudes and beliefs in a UK community sample: An analysis by age, gender and deprivation.

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    YesBinge drinking has sparked considerable interest and concern. However despite this interest little is known about the lay understanding of binge drinking and whether there are differences in understanding by gender, age and level of deprivation. Aims: This study investigated the beliefs and attitudes of a sample in the Inverclyde area to binge drinking. Methods: Using both cluster and quota sampling, 586 subjects completed a structured interview, using open questions about their beliefs on binge drinking and was it a problem generally and locally. Findings: Definitions of binge drinking tended to concentrate on intoxication and some described a dependent drinking pattern. Causes and solutions offered were varied but pointed up levels of deprivation in respect of jobs and entertainment. More subjects regarded binge drinking as a problem in society than locally, which is consistent with research suggesting that misperceptions of others¿ drinking increases with social distance. Differences in beliefs were found by age and level of deprivation but not gender. It was marked that no subject offered the `official¿ definition of bingeing or even an approximation of it. Conclusions: Further research is required if future mass media campaigns and interventions are to be relevant to the population

    Comparison of coping, quality of life and psychosocial well-being in children and adult patients with vitiligo before and after treatment with pseudocatalase PC-KUS. A questionnaire-based investigation into social anxiety, helplessness, anxious-depressive mood, quality of life and depression before and after treatment with pseudocatalase PC-KUS depending on demographic characteristics and experiences.

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    Vitiligo is an idiopathic, non-contagious and often familial depigmentation disorder affecting both sexes equally. The mostly progressive and patchy loss of the inherited skin colour is not only a cosmetical problem, it has a profound impact on the patient¿s well-being. Stigmatisation and rejection often causes depression, self-consciousness, sexual problems and an impaired quality of life. To further substantiate earlier investigations and to introduce new aspects, we utilised the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Adjustment to Chronic Skin Disorders Questionnaire (ACS) with its sub-scales on Social anxiety / avoidance, Helplessness and Anxious-depressive Mood in 422 patients and 55 healthy controls. We also included 103 children, their parents and 18 controls by using the Children¿s Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) and an adapted version of the ACS. We found that patients with vitiligo experience high levels of stigmatisation. They have an impaired quality of life and are more socially anxious / avoidant, helpless and (anxious-) depressive compared to healthy controls. The results correlate with disease severity, avoidant behaviour / hiding of vitiligo and the belief that psychological stress influences the disease. Female patients are generally more affected. Treatment with pseudocatalase PC-KUS improves quality of life and reduces anxious-depressive mood. Children also suffer from stigmatisation and an impaired quality of life. Parents are more socially anxious and helpless compared to the control group.German Vitiligo Association (Deutscher Vitiligo Verein

    Uncomfortable Truths – Teamworking under Lean in the UK.

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    yesThis article responds to a recent contribution to this journal. Procter and Radnor (2014) provide an account of teamworking in the UK Civil Service, specifically Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC), which focuses on the relationship between recently implemented lean work organisation and teams and teamworking. This intervention is prompted by criticism of the present authors’ published research into lean in the same locus (e.g. Carter et al, 2011a; 2011b; 2013a; 2013b). Procter and Radnor claim, without foundation we argue, that our work is ‘one-sided’ and that theirs delivers a ‘more nuanced’ analysis of lean in this government department - and it follows - of the lean phenomenon more generally. Our riposte critiques their article on several grounds. Firstly, it suffers from problems of logic and construction, conceptual confusion and definitional imprecision. Methodological difficulties and inconsistent evidence contribute additionally to analytical weakness. Included in our response are empirical findings on teamworking at HMRC, which challenge Procter and Radnor’s evidential basis and further reveal the shortcomings of their interpretation
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