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    EJFDS 3.1 Cover and Table of Contents

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    Generations Growing Together: Intergenerational Learning as a Pedagogical Strategy in Early Childhood Education and Care Services. A Handbook for Practitioners and Trainers

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    Despite being the oldest form of learning, IGL has declined steadily over time due to wide-ranging social, cultural, economic and demographic changes. Children in the Western world are growing up in smaller, geographically dispersed family circles and, consequently, have fewer opportunities to interact with different age groups and to see themselves as part of a multigenerational society. Older people are living longer, yet are frequently separated from their families by distance, migration and family breakdown and, more recently, by COVID-19. Additionally, with the increasing attendance at age-segregated services, including preschools and care homes, traditional places and opportunities for age groups to mix have decreased. This has resulted in fewer opportunities for the development of intergenerational relationships and learning and ultimately poses a risk to social inclusion. Planned, non-familial IGL, which involves bringing different unrelated age groups together, to learn from each other and about each other, has emerged in a wide variety of sectors since the late 20th century, building on the positive resources the young and old have to offer each other. IGL can take place in formal (e.g. schools) and non-formal settings, such as early childhood education and care (ECEC) services, older adults services, community centres, libraries, museums, and parks. Key benefits of IGL include creating greater understanding and respect between generations, addressing societal concerns of loneliness and isolation, building social cohesion in communities, and enhancing opportunities for lifelong learning. Bringing generations together expands learning opportunities, enhances feelings of well-being and belonging and helps to build stronger communities for young children to grow up in. More recently, a growing body of research has demonstrated that IGL is an effective pedagogical strategy in ECEC as it aligns closely with internationally recognised principles of young children’s learning and development. Furthermore, adopting IGL as a pedagogical strategy raises important philosophical questions about what is important for young children to learn now and into the future. Doing so may extend or challenge contemporary ideas of ECEC practice as educators harness the benefits of intergenerational learning and support the development of young children as caring, contributing members of communities

    Religious Tourism Attractions at Debre Aron Rock-Hewn Church, Meket District, Northern Ethiopia

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    Ethiopia, which has a diverse sacred cultural heritage, has enormous fortunes as far as religious tourism is concerned. Its ancient Christianity has left numerous religious and historical legacies, ranging from architecturally sophisticated sacred monuments to living religious practices. However, the development of these legacies for religious tourism is hindered mainly due to a lack of research and consideration by tourism developers. This study aims to investigate the potential tourism value of Debre Aron Monastery, which is one of the most overlooked religious sites in northern Ethiopia. To this end, the study’s data, which are analysed qualitatively, were collected through literature review, field observation, and interviews. The study reveals that Debre Aron is endowed with significant values that are quite worthwhile for religious tourism and pilgrimage development. Physically, the monastery is established on a spectacular mountain, Debre Daret, which overlooks the lowlands of the upper course of the Tekkezze River. Historically, it has a significant local narrative linked to its founder, Abba Aron, a prominent monk in the 14th century. Aron has been honoured as miraculous by the local Christians because of his spiritual triumph during the struggle he had with the thenkings, who were criticised for their non-Christian practices. In relation to this, it was one of the few monastic centers that marked the then uneasy church-state relationship. Architecturally, Aron’s rockhewn church posesses significant architectural components. The siquret (an aperture) in the roof of the chanting room does not allow rainfall to penetrate but allows sunlight. This feature, among others, is a unique architectural tradition of this cave church. The monastery also has preserved ancient sacred treasures, some of which are attributable to Aron. The gudib, which Aron used to excavate his church, is the most sacred treasure that has not only spiritual but also archaeological value in relation to ancient rock-hewn churches in Ethiopia. The monastery’s annual festivity, which falls on September 15th, is an important platform to promote the monastery as a center of religious tourism and pilgrimage. However, these values should be managed and developed for religious tourism purposes by establishing the necessary infrastructure needed both for tourists and local communities

    Impact of Globalisation on Religious Tourism: The Case of Vrindavan, India

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    The term ‘religious tourism’ refers to travel that is primarily inspired by spiritual beliefs (Smith, 2012). It serves as one of humanity’s oldest religious practices as well as one of the earliest examples of tourism (Timothy, 2011). Due in the main to the numerous sacred places that are dispersed throughout its vast geographic area, India, which is known for its rich heritage and culture, has attracted attention from throughout the world (Eck, 2011; Singh, 2013). As a result, it has become a well-known location for religious tourism. During the past ten years, this specific type of tourism has seen a tremendous increase in growth rates, leading to considerable changes at important spiritual and religious places. Intense globalisation and rapid urbanisation have been prompted by the influx of tourists and pilgrims, profoundly altering the terrain (Harris, Griffin & Williams, 2002). This paper delves into this phenomenon through a case study of Vrindavan, a significant city situated on the banks of the Yamuna River in northern India, which has held great religious significance and serves as a prominent pilgrimage destination (Shinde, 2011). However, as part of a larger process of globalisation and ensuing urbanisation, and the entry of numerous transnational chains starting in the 1960s, there have been significant changes. The idea of a pilgrimage to Vrindavan has changed, moving away from its original meaning as a trek to the home of the gods and instead becoming more of a holiday and leisure destination. This change has produced exciting opportunities for investors and developers, prompting growing urbanisation and a notable break from the customary pilgrimage practices that were traditionally observed. The study examines the ways in which globalisation influences the establishment of new sacred places supported by various faith-based organisations by using a case study approach and a purposive survey method (Kothari, 2004). Considering the concomitant processes of religious commercialisation and spatial transformation, the article seeks to shed light on the consequent impact on the spiritual experience and the larger pilgrimage patterns throughout the city. The study ends by making suggestions for steps that can be taken to lessen the effect of globalisation on a city’s spiritual essence and make sure that urban growth is in harmony with its history and sacred values

    How I Became a Food Historian: Looking Back on All Manners of Food

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    The author’s book All Manners of Food was published in 1985 and was well received by historians and (to a lesser extent) by sociologists. In this essay, he reflects on how, having begun his academic career mainly as a sociological theorist, he came to write a large book about the history of food in England and France. In particular, he traces his intellectual debt, in writing this book, to Norbert Elias

    Honest Claret : The Social Meaning of Georgian Ireland’s Favourite Wine

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    IJRTP Volume 11(vi) Table of Contents

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    IJRTP Volume 11(vi) Title Page and Table of Content

    Integration of Islamic Religious Values and Javanese Culture in the Development of Pilgrimage Tourism in Ngawonggo, Indonesia

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    Spiritual tourism prioritising religious aspects, is one of East Java’s oldest forms of tourism, especially in Malang district. This form of tourism has long developed since combining Islamic and Javanese values. The concept emerged along with the Indonesian halal tourism brand. As a form of contribution to the development of religious tourism, this study seeks to show the existence of traditional relations in aspects of Islamic pilgrimage as a form of tourist behaviour which involves visiting historical tourism in tourist villages. This research uses a qualitative methods with a case study which includes interviews and participatory observation that aims to understand the aspects of pilgrimage in depth. The findings show that tourists visiting spiritual objects of high importance are not unlike Muslims in their behaviour when visiting Mecca - performing tawaf, drinking holy water, giving alms and eating together. However, this is something that attracts tourists to visit. Planning and development are still needed, especially in the flow of rituals that are carried out so as not to eliminate the purpose of developing halal tourism in Indonesia

    Review of: Tourism Development, Governance and Sustainability in The Bahamas

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    Book Review of: Rolle, S., Minnis, J. and Bethell-Bennett, I. (Eds.) (2020) Tourism Development, Governance and Sustainability in The Bahamas, Abingdon, Routledg

    Generalised Zero-Shot Learning for Action Recognition fusing text and image GANs

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    Generalized Zero-Shot Action Recognition (GZSAR) is geared towards recognizing classes that the model has not been trained on, while still maintaining robust performance on the familiar, trained classes. This approach mitigates the need for an extensive amount of labeled training data and enhances the efficient utilization of available datasets. The main contribution of this paper is a novel approach for GZSAR that combines the power of two Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). One GAN is responsible for generating embeddings from visual representations, while the other GAN focuses on generating embeddings from textual representations. These generated embeddings are fused, with the selection of the maximum value from each array that represents the embeddings, and this fused data is then utilized to train a GZSAR classifier in a supervised manner. This framework also incorporates a feature refinement component and an out-of-distribution detector to mitigate the domain shift problem between seen and unseen classes. In our experiments, notable improvements were observed. On the UCF101 benchmark dataset, we achieved a 7.43% increase in performance, rising from 50.93% (utilizing images and Word2Vec alone) to 54.71% with the implementation of two GANs. Additionally, on the HMDB51 dataset, we saw a 7.06% improvement, advancing from 36.11% using Text and Word2Vec to 38.66% with the dual-GAN approach. These results underscore the efficacy of our dualGAN framework in enhancing GZSAR performance. The rest of the paper shows the main contributions to the field of GZSAR and highlights the potential and future lines of research in this exciting area

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