Agritrop

    After Daewoo? Current status and perspectives of large-scale land acquisition in Madagascar

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    On March 17, 2009, the fall of the Ravalomanana government in Madagascar resounded in the national and international media. The event assumed a unique character, as land questions appeared to be among the claims that led to the uprising. Accusations of "selling off the ancestors' land" were brought against President Ravalomanana following the revelation of a project to lease more than one million hectares of agricultural land, under obscure conditions, to a South Korean company, Daewoo Logistics. Since the beginning of the 2000s, a number of land acquisition projects in the agricultural sector have been announced or revealed by the press. The little information available implied that they were aimed at the production of food commodities, agrofuels, or wood. The land areas in question comprised between 1,000 and 200,000 hectares per invest-ment project. This study presents the evolution of large agricultural investments in Madagascar between 2005 and 2010. Commissioned by the International Land Coalition (ILC), it was realized by the Malagasy Land Observatory (l'Observatoire du Foncier à Madagascar) and CIRAD. Its aims are to: Examine the establishment processes of the Daewoo and Varun projects, both of which were eventually abandoned; Describe the status of land investment projects, by differentiating between those that have simply been announced and those that are effectively underway; Determine the operators' objectives with regards to land acquisition and to pinpoint the status of their applications for land; Examine the legal framework that is meant to regulate these investments; Analyze operators' practices in accessing land as well as the means of regulation, both formal and informal, of these investments at the local and national levels; Raise core questions to be addressed in the framework of a future debate on the role of these investments in the agricultural sector and on the institutional mechanisms that need to be reinforced in order to improve the transparency of land acquisition projects, to clarify the procedures for investors to follow, and to limit negative social, economic, and environmental impacts. (Résumé d'auteur

    Transmission d'électrons de 0-15 eV à travers des films minces de solides bio-organiques à 300 K: application au tryptophane = Electron transmission at 0-15 eV through bioorganic solid thin films at 300 K: application to tryptophan

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    Nous présentons une méthode expérimentale de mesure de la transmission d'électrons de faible énergie (0-15?eV) à travers des films minces solides bio-organiques à 300?K. Cette méthode est utilisée pour déterminer l'énergie des premières transitions électroniques (optiquement permises ou non) et l'énergie du plus bas niveau de conduction d'un électron dans ces solides. En mesurant la densité et l'épaisseur des films avec précision, l'analyse des données expérimentales à l'aide d'un modèle théorique de simulation permet d'estimer pour la première fois les valeurs des sections efficaces d'interaction d'un électron de faible énergie dans un solide biologique. À titre d'exemple, nous exposons les résultats obtenus pour le tryptophane. (Résumé d'auteur

    Performance of augmentorium as a sanitation technique against fruit flies (Diptera: tephritidae) in Reunion Island

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    Background. Tephritid fruit flies cause severe damage to fruit and vegetable crops in Reunion Island. Instead of the curative approach to reduce existing populations, the first step proposed for their management is sanitation. This method is based on an original technique firstly developed by USDA in Hawaii utilizing a tent-like structure called an "augmentorium" which aims to sequester adult flies emerging from infested fruit while allowing the parasitoids to escape, via a net placed at the top of the structure. This study focused on the performance and the efficiency of the augmentorium prototype recently tested in Reunion Island and particularly (i) the number of adult flies that can potentially be sequestered in an augmentorium in the field; (ii) the efficiency of the net mesh for fly sequestration and parasitoid escape; (iii) the feasibility of producing compost with infested fruit collected in the field. Method. The potential number of flies that could be sequestered was estimated by measuring in the lab the emergence of several species of flies from infested fruit collected in the field from 2005 to 2009 in different sites of the island. Emergence of adult flies was measured for six species of flies: (i) Bactrocera cucurbitae, Dacus ciliatus and D. demmerezi attacking three species of Cucurbits (pumpkin: Cucurbita maxima; cucumber: Cucumis sativus and courgette: Cucurbita pepo); (ii) Bactrocera zonata, Ceratitis rosa and C. capitata attacking one species of fruit (mango: Mangifera indica). The sequestration of three of these fly species (B. cucurbitae, B. zonata and C. capitata) and the escape of two of their parasitoids (Psyttalia fletcheri and Fopius arisanus) were assessed in the Cirad laboratory in Saint-Pierre in 2008. Preliminary tests on the feasibility of producing compost were then conducted in Saint-Pierre in 2009, mixing courgette and other components. Results. Collections of infested fruits showed the following means of emerged adults per kg of fruit: 76 for mango (B. zonata, C. rosa, C. capitata); 217 for cucumber, 340 for pumpkin and 594 for courgette (B. cucurbitae, D. ciliatus, D. demmerezi). The efficiency of the mesh chosen for the prototype of augmentorium (hole area 1.96 mm²) proved to be perfectly effective in the lab with 100% of sequestration of adult flies. In the same way, 100% of the parasitoids were able to escape from the mesh if they choose to do so. In addition, we showed that a ratio of 50:30:20 of courgette, sugar cane stem and chicken litter respectively was well adapted to produce compost. Conclusion. These results confirm the relevance and the efficiency of the augmentorium in an agroecological crop protection. As a sanitation technique against fruit flies, the augmentorium sequesters on average several hundreds of adult flies per kg of infested fruit. As a biological control method, it may contribute to increase parasitoid populations which are often low because of the previous and significant pesticide pressure. The augmentorium can also be considered as a useful tool to produce compost in the context of sustainable agriculture. The technique of sanitation using the augmentorium is now well accepted by farmers in pilot areas in Reunion Island. (Texte intégral

    An LCA of French beans from Kenya with a critical analysis of impacts due to pesticide applications

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    This paper presents and critically analyzes a cradle-to-market-gate LCA study performed with Endpoint indicators for a public decision-maker for the fresh French bean ( FB) value chain of Kenya. Five main stages were included: agricultural production, transport by road before pack-house, pack-house, transport by road after pack-house and intercontinental transport by air-freight. The functional unit was 1 kg of raw French bean processed. Supported by local experts, primary data were collected for all inputs and outputs for 33 farms over 5 counties and 2 pack-houses. At market-gate, air-freight was identified as main hot-spot pleading for the design of stabilized FB products that could be sea-freighted. At farm-gate, large differences were observed between farm types and fertilizer, water and land use were the key drivers of their eco-efficiency. Impacts due to pesticides applications were small at Endpoint level but were incomplete. To help practitioners perform more complete assessments of value chains in South contexts, operational and reliable tools are needed on estimating field pesticides' emissions and uncertainty

    Contribution à l'étude de la diversité Génétique du manioc cultivé (Manihot esculenta) en Afrique Centrale (Zone CEMAC)

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    Le manioc, Manihot esculenta Crantz est un aliment de base dans les régions tropicales. Il est diploïde, fertile, mais sa culture se fait largement par multiplication végétative. Il a été introduit en Afrique depuis le XVIème siècle par les portugais. Bien que I' Afrique Centrale soit le premier centre d'introduction, la diversité génétique du manioc dans cette région est mal connue. Suite à une collecte de manioc cultive menée dans cinq pays de la CEMAC dans le cadre du projet PRASAC pour une production durable du manioc, nous avons génotype 365 accessions en utilisant 28 marqueurs microsatellites. L'étude a révélé 109 allèles avec un nombre moyen d'allèles par locus de 4.74, pour un taux de 28% d'allèles rares. Les 338 accessions étudiées représentent 253 génotypes multilocus. L'analyse de la diversité génétique ne révèle aucune structuration géographique ni agro-écologique. Cela indique probablement une diversification locale du manioc dans la région liée aux forts échanges entre les pays, mais aussi que la sexualité a participé. Ces résultats serviront à guider les programmes de conservation régionale, et d'amélioration du manioc dans la région. (Résumé d'auteur

    Transhumance et cultures fourragères. Diversité des pratiques d'élevage dans deux villages du Lac Alaotra

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    A partir d'une interrogation sur la compatibilité entre les systèmes fourragers actuels et la perspective d'accroître l'effort de traction du cheptel de trait, cette étude met en lumière la diversité des pratiques d'élevage dans deux villages distants de 30 km. On y décrit en particulier des systèmes traditionnels extensifs basés sur une valorisation de la complémentarité entre la plaine rizicole en vaine pâture de saison sèche et les collines de l'amont des bassins-versants, en saison des pluies. A l'opposé dans les systèmes intensifs, les animaux présents à l'année sur l'exploitation ont une ration composée essentiellement de produits de la ferme, résidus de culture et manioc amer, véritable culture fourragère. Deux systèmes de pratiques liées à des situations agraires différentes, sur le plan de l'accessibilité et des types de pâturage, de l'extension des cultures, de l'histoire du peuplement et de la mise en valeur en particulier. Par le rôle essentiel du cheptel de trait, sur les stratégies des producteurs - accès au foncier en riziculture, développement des cultures sèches - et sur la dégradation des bassins-versants - feux sur pâturage - il apparait indispensable d'accompagner le développement de cet élevage au Lac Alaotra. Des priorités sont définies. (Résumé d'auteur
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