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    Dynamic prognosis in metastatic breast cancer using copy number features

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    We consider the problem of dynamic prediction of death in metastatic breast cancer through the use of liquid biopsies in the DETECT trial. Through shallow whole-genome sequencing of patients, we calculate tumour fraction and copy number aberration profiles using ichorCNA, a Bayesian hierarchical hidden Markov model. Subsequently, we extract potential predictive features and cancer signatures from these profiles using a systematic framework. Through the use of LASSO regularised Cox proportional hazards landmark supermodels, we obtain different interpretable signatures which are predictive of the outcome, and whose interpretation is linked to the effects of BRCA mutations. The models obtained improve the predictions of those currently in use, which restrict themselves to CT scans and tumour fraction. These findings suggest the potential for widespread clinical adoption of shallow whole-genome sequencing sampling to improve cancer patient monitoring and to further exploit the broad genomic information that can be found in a cost-effective way using these assays

    Examen final i segon parcial

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    Resolved2023/20241r quadrimestr

    Modeling demand and lead-times to create Sanofi's supply chain simulator

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    Ab initio study of Fe diffusion mechanisms in zirconium

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    Zirconium alloys are the most widely used material for nuclear fuel cladding in light wa- ter reactors where irradiation causes solute redistribution and creation of point defects like vacancies, which degradates the alloy properties. It is mandatory to understand at atomic-scale the transport behavior of the alloying elements in Zr, like Fe. Fe diffusion in Zr is considered anormal because it is much faster than other elements and it does not follow an Arrhenius equation. Previous studies tried to explain this phenomenon relying on the most common and well-knon diffusion mechanisms, where an Fe atom can occupy either an interstitial or substitutional possition, however, they did not man- age to reproduce the experimental results. In this work, a new diffusion mechanism that consists of an Fe-interstitial atom and a vacancy next to it is proposed. DFT cal- culations were performed to calculate binding and migration energies between different configurations of a Fe-vacancy cluster. A semi-analytical code developed at SRMP lab- oratory, KineCluE, was used to calculate the diffusion coefficients of the solute and Zr self-diffusion as well. The results are in accordance to experimental result

    TFG’s amb ODS. EETAC publicats al 2022 i 2023

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    Postprint (published version

    Projectes R+D+I 2023. Generación del conocimiento

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    Enhancing the corrosion resistance of 2205 duplex stainless steel in molten carbonate salts by laser-surface texturing

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    Next-generation concentrated solar power (CSP) technology needs to work at high temperatures to increase its power generation efficiency. It represents overcoming some issues for the structural materials, such as corrosion mitigation. In the present work, the laser-surface texturing (LST) treatment is investigated as a surface modification method to mitigate corrosion of a duplex stainless steel for CSP structural material. Corrosion tests of duplex steel were carried out immersed in a static molten salt mixture of Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 at 600 °C for 1000 h. Complementary microscopy, microanalysis and optical characterization techniques were used to analyse both the steel surface after LST and the oxide scales formed after corrosion tests. Results evidenced that the laser treatment favoured the formation of a denser oxide layer, improving its effectiveness as a protective barrier against further oxidation. Compared with an untreated surface, the laser-treated one significantly decreased the corrosion rate by 48 %.This research was funded by Direcció General d'Indústria and ACCIÓ (Generalitat de Catalunya) to IMEM-CIEFMA in the INNOTEC project with grant number ACE034/21/000031, and Agency for Administration of University and Research (Agència de Gestió d'Ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca, AGAUR) (2021 SGR 01053). Mohammad Rezayat also acknowledges the AGAUR Fellowship (FI-SDUR-2020) of the Generalitat de Catalunya for its financial support.Peer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft

    SIDI. Segundo parcial y final (Curs 2023-2024)

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    Resolved2023/20241r quadrimestr

    Vanadium redox flow battery capacity loss mitigation strategy based on a comprehensive analysis of electrolyte imbalance effects

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    Electrolyte imbalance is the main cause of capacity loss in vanadium redox flow batteries. It has been widely reported that imbalance caused by vanadium crossover can be readily recovered by remixing the electrolytes, while imbalance caused by a net oxidation of the electrolyte can only be reverted by means of more complex chemical or electrochemical methods. At the moment, however, the joint effect of both types of imbalances on the battery capacity is still not well understood. To overcome this limitation, generalised State of Charge and State of Health indicators that consider both types of imbalances are derived in this work. Subsequently, a thorough analysis on how the battery capacity depends on electrolyte imbalance is performed. As a result of this analysis, two specific outcomes are highlighted. Firstly, it is shown that standard electrolyte remixing may be counterproductive under certain imbalance conditions, further reducing the battery capacity instead of augmenting it. Secondly, it is demonstrated that most of the capacity loss caused by oxidation can be mitigated by inducing an optimal mass imbalance in the system. Consequently, a systematic procedure to track this optimum is proposed and validated through computer simulation.The project that gave rise to these results received the support of a fellowship from “la Caixa” Foundation (ID 100010434). The fellowship code is LCF/BQ/DI21/11860023. This work is part of the Project MAFALDA (PID2021-126001OB-C31) funded by MCIN/ AEI /10.13039/501100011033 and by “ERDF A way of making Europe”. This work is part of the project MASHED (TED2021-129927B-I00), funded by MCIN/ AEI/10.13039/50110 0011033 and by the European Union Next GenerationEU/PRTR.Peer ReviewedPostprint (published version

    Contact damage induced by means of conical indentation in hardmetals: Microstructural effects on residual strength

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    Aiming to evaluate the influence of microstructure on residual strength of hardmetals, conical indentation is implemented and validated as a simple and practical methodology to introduce controlled damage. Work is carried out in three fine-grained WC-Co cemented carbides with different binder content. In doing so, a contact damage map is first constructed through combined use of a wide range of indentation loads, detailed inspection by means of optical/electron microscopy and sequential tomography. Threshold indentation load values, defining the transition from deformation into cracking phenomena, are then used as experimental variable for residual strength testing of indented specimens. Dummy indentations are included in single specimens for extracting additional post-mortem information. Microstructural effects on residual strength are determined by comparing the fracture resistance under four-point bending of indented specimens with respect to values determined for pristine samples. It is found that fracture toughness prevails over hardness as key parameter for inducing a gradual strength lessening, instead of abrupt resistance drops. Main reason behind it is the capability of tougher hardmetal grades to uniformly distribute and homogenize the damage introduced during conical indentation. This is supported by the differences observed in the interaction of imprint and cracking features along failure paths as well as in stable growth of fissures linked to dummy indentations under the application of an external load. This finally translates in enhanced resistance to crack extension and higher damage tolerance.Peer ReviewedPostprint (published version

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