Research Online @ ECU

    Multi-modal behavioural biometric authentication for mobile devices

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    The potential advantages of behavioural biometrics are that they can be utilised in a transparent (non-intrusive) and continuous authentication system. However, individual biometric techniques are not suited to all users and scenarios. One way to increase the reliability of transparent and continuous authentication systems is create a multi-modal behavioural biometric authentication system. This research investigated three behavioural biometric techniques based on SMS texting activities and messages, looking to apply these techniques as a multi-modal biometric authentication method for mobile devices. The results showed that behaviour profiling, keystroke dynamics and linguistic profiling can be used to discriminate users with overall error rates 20%, 20% and 22% respectively. To study the feasibility of multi-modal behaviour biometric authentication system, matching-level fusion methods were applied. Two fusion methods were utilised: simple sum and weight average. The results showed clearly that matching-level fusion can improve the classification performance with an overall EER 8%

    The healthy vs the empty self: Protective vs paradoxical behaviours

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    The paradigm of the self as it is conceptualised in Western society includes an implicit assumption that one of the primary activities of the self is to engage in protective behaviours. This is a basic assumption in mass media promotion of healthy behaviours: \u27Quit smoking\u27 to protect yourself from lung cancer; \u27Work safe\u27 to protect yourself from injury, etc. Mass media social marketing campaigns inform the general population of the dangers to the self\u27s existence of smoking, drink-driving, unsafe sex, over-eating, under-exercising and so on. These campaigns are based on models such as the Health Belief Model (Janz and Becker), the Fear Drive paradigm (Janis; McGuire), the Parallel Response Model (Leventhal), Thayer\u27s Arousal Model, Roger\u27s Protection Motivation Theory (Rogers & Mewborn; Maddux & Rogers), Ordered Protection Motivation Theory (Tanner, Hunt and Eppright) and the Extended Parallel Process Model (Witte). Fundamental to all these models is the assumption that people are motivated to protect themselves from harm. Information is provided that warns of the severity and likelihood of consequences of unhealthy behaviours. In some cases this information does motivate people to give up harmful behaviours and adopt safer options

    Is it too bloody late ? Older people \u27 s attitudes to the National Physical Activity Guidelines

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    The National Physical Activity Guidelines (NPAGs) are the evidencebased recommendations on physical activity for all Australians. This study examines the attitudes of older people to the NPAGs with the aim of identifying communication objectives for social marketing practitioners when designing messages about physical activity specifically targeted at older people. Eight focus groups were conducted at the Positive Ageing Foundation’s conference rooms in Perth, Western Australia, with between six and eight participants in each. None of the participants had previously seen the NPAGs but some of the content had filtered through in the media. Of most concern was that some participants felt that it was already too late for older people to become more physically active. Participants were receptive to a holistic approach including social interaction and mental stimulation for overall health and well-being, but males in particular were cynical towards the source of social marketing messages. The findings suggest that social marketers targeting older people with physical activity need to address three key communication objectives: 1) the benefits of ‘incidental’ physical activity; 2) that short bouts of moderate-intensity physical activity can be accumulated throughout the day to total the recommended thirty minutes; and 3) it’s never too late to benefit from being more physically active

    Marketing the Anti-Smoking Message to Immigrant Adolescents: Are Cultural Values Risk or Protective Factors?

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    One of the keys to successful social marketing is segmentation, the process of identifying appropriate subgroups so that a marketing mix can be designed to match their specific needs. This paper reports an investigation into smoking intentions amongst Sri Lankan immigrant adolescents living in Western Australia. Four focus group discussions were conducted to explore how cultural values are expressed in this group’s beliefs and attitudes towards smoking and non-smoking and how these values may influence their smoking-related behaviour. We investigated what smoking means to Sri Lankan teenagers and the protective or risk factors that may influence their decision to smoke or not smoke. Most of the participants had never tried a cigarette. Females and males attached similar values to smoking, arising from their perceived social norms and cultural contexts. These values appeared to protect them against smoking uptake. However, differences were found between male and female adolescents’ perception about the reasons their peers smoke. Males saw peers’ smoking as a way to be cool and popular. Females saw peers’ smoking as a way to solve stress and other personal problems. Both should be considered as risk factors for smoking uptake in this subgroup. It would not be cost effective to design a separate marketing strategy for Sri Lankan adolescents in Australia as this market segment would be too small. However, these preliminary findings form the basis of more extensive work looking at immigrant adolescents in Australia and could lead eventually to the development of social marketing messages that are specifically tailored for this previously neglected segment

    ICU survivors\u27 utilisation of diaries post discharge: A qualitative descriptive study

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    Background: A growing body of evidence has confirmed that intensive care unit survivors encounter myriad of physical and psychological complications during their recovery. The incidence of psychological morbidity in intensive care survivors is increasingly being recognised. The causes of psychological morbidity are multi-factorial but may be associated with a complete lack of, or delusional recall of events in intensive care. Intensive care unit diaries are an initiative designed to enable survivors to help restore factual memories and differentiate those from delusional.Purpose: To explore survivors’ and family members’ perceptions and utilisation of diaries following discharge from hospital. Method: A single centre qualitative descriptive study was undertaken in a general intensive care unit in Western Australia. Participants were surveyed 3, 6 and 12 months following discharge from hospital. Eighteen participants completed one or more surveys. Findings: Many of the participants who completed the surveys read their diaries but few made entries in them following discharge. Reading the diaries evoked mixed emotions for these participants; however they still viewed the diaries as a positive initiative in their recovery. Diaries enabled survivors to fill the memory gaps, make sense of their experience and reinforced the human connection when they were immersed in a technological environment. Conclusion:Use of patient diaries was received positively by the participants in this study. Diaries are a simple, cost effective initiative which enabled survivors to piece together the time they had lost, concreted their experience in reality and enabled them to retain a connection with their loved ones whilst immersed in a technological environment

    It doesn\u27t seem like work, it seems like good fun\u27: Perceptions of primary students on the use of Handheld Game Consoles in mathematics classes

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    A Chinese proverb suggests \u27Tell me and I\u27ll forget; show me and I may remember; involve me and I\u27ll understand.\u27 How to involve or engage today\u27s learner is at the forefront of much educational research and was the impetus for the study reported herein. This study explored the perceptions of Year 4/5 students from nine separate schools in Western Australia about the use of the Handheld Game Console (HGC) Nintendo DS to develop mental mathematics skills. It revealed that students perceived the use of the HGCs as both fun and engaging. Further, students identified that they were challenged, developed strategies for success and made independent choices during these classes. These discussions are presented as a framework of factors that impacted on the participating students\u27 self-improvement, self-determination and self-esteem

    Joondalup Pines Picture Garden

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    The Joondalup Pines outdoor cinema, located at ECU Joondalup Campus, offers a great opportunity to view acclaimed international films in a unique setting for Perth International Arts Festival, which is held annually over summer.

    Study Jazz at ECU

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    The jazz program at WAAPA has long been recognised as one of the strongest jazz courses in the southern hemisphere, producing many nationally and internationally renowned jazz musicians. The strength of the course lies in the focus on performance outcomes, hence all educational units are based around developing these skills. Students have the option of pursuing a performance or arranging stream in third year, culminating in a professional recital at the end of the year and throughout the year all students participate in many varied ensembles, from big bands to jazz trios and everything in between. The jazz course has a visiting artist program that is second to none, and prides itself on the depth of professional knowledge that is on offer to students year round.

    Knee angle-specific EMG normalization: The use of polynomial based EMG-angle relationships.

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    The normalization of EMG signals to those recorded during a maximal voluntary contraction provides a valid construct for comparisons of relative muscle activity. However, the length dependence of muscle activation and purported, substantial, muscle translocation and changes in muscle architecture during dynamic movements presents a need for joint angle-dependent normalization processes. The purposes of the present study were to: (1) quantify variations in muscle activity across a large ROM, (2) determine the accuracy with which fitted EMG-joint angle curves accurately characterized these variations, and (3) compare peak (EMG-P) and average (EMG-A) EMG amplitudes obtained during a countermovement leg extension when normalized to both absolute peak and joint angle-specific muscle activity. Fifteen subjects performed a large ROM (110°) isokinetic (30°s(-1)) leg extension from which EMG-joint angle relationships were derived using polynomial fitting of different complexities. Ten subjects also performed loaded countermovement leg extensions from which EMG signals were normalized using peak muscle activity and EMG-angle curves. EMG amplitude varied significantly over the ROM and the use of EMG-angle curves for signal normalization resulted in significantly greater EMG-P and EMG-A than those normalized using the absolute peak EMG. Higher-order polynomial fitting better matched the filtered EMG amplitudes. Thus, there is a strong rationale for using EMG-angle polynomial fits to normalize EMG signals for large ROM movements
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